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Étude d’une antenne vectorielle UHF multibande appliquée à la goniométrie 3D

Abstract : Nowadays, a lot of wideband or multiband direction finding antennas operating in the UHF band exist. Nevertheless, only few of them allow to estimate the direction of arrival in the full 3D space. At the author’s knowledge, the first 3D direction finding antenna was studied in the 1960s, at the University of Michigan. Composed of 17 sensors, located on a large hemispherical surface, this antenna is bulky and complex to use. Recently, some studies have proposed another approach based on the multicomponent measurement of the electromagnetic field that allows to decrease the antennas size and the number of radiating elements without reducing the 3D angular coverage. However, only HF (3-30MHz) or narrowband systems have been reported. The objective of this PhD is to study and to develop an UHF multiband vector sensor applied to the estimation of the direction of arrival of transverse magnetic waves in the full 3D space. Firstly, two signal processing techniques adapted to this approach are compared : a new technique based on the spherical harmonic decomposition of the antenna radiation which allows to recompose the received electromagnetic field from the measured samples and a well-known high resolution algorithm called MUSIC. A design methodology allowing to identify the physical criteria of vector sensors related to the antenna performances such as the estimation accuracy, the sensitivity, the number of elements and the antenna size is proposed. This method is used for developing and designing a first single-band vector sensor. The results obtained from numerical simulations allow to rule out the first signal processing technique which is too sensitive to the radiation perturbations. Then, a compact dual-band vector sensor operating in the GSM frequency band, [890MHz-960MHz] and [1710MHZ-1880MHz], is developed by using the same design methodology. The antenna size is λ/4 in radius and λ /5.5 in height at the lowest frequency. The electric and magnetic elements which compose the vector sensors are designed separately and then combined according to a planar spatial distribution to retain a compact antenna size. The same radiating structures are used for operating in the two frequency bands in order to reduce the number of elements and the eventual radiation perturbations. After the performances assessment through numerical simulations in each band, a prototype is manufactured and its estimation performances are measured for a validation purpose. The sensitivity is -110dBW/m² (85μV/m) for a 5° RMS angular accuracy. Finally, the study is extended to the general case of multiband antennas by adding a third band, [400MHz-430MHz]. New elements are developed and incorporated into the dual-band GSM sensors to obtain a tri-band vector sensor. The size of this new antenna is λ /3.2 in radius and λ /12.5 in height at 400MHz. Despite a slight increase of the angular errors in the estimation of the direction of arrival caused by the presence of the new antenna elements, the characterization of the tri-band sensor performances by simulation show a good accuracy with a sensitivity valued at -105dBW/m² (155μV/m) for a 5° RMS angular accuracy.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01117288, version 1

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Jimmy Lominé. Étude d’une antenne vectorielle UHF multibande appliquée à la goniométrie 3D. Electromagnétisme. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014INPT0096⟩. ⟨tel-01117288⟩

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