Le Monde Invisible du Travail de l'Agro-industrie d'Éxportation au Chili. Étude de la Vallée du Limarí

Abstract : Much of the research and indicators regarding development come from official statistics. But what can we say about the invisible world generated by socioeconomic and cultural transformations underlying the development processes? This research looks at this invisible world, focusing on the changes brought about by the economic and social development strategies implemented in recent decades in Chile, particularly in agricultural labor. Although the country is considered to be a development model, different indicators have revealed significant inequalities in several areas, such as health, education, income and gender. Flexible labor policies have given rise to new forms of work characterized by precariousness, informality and instability. The agricultural world in particular, together with the farm work itself, which has been the focus of development for centuries, has undergone profound changes in its structure, its forms of production, its work models and its social and gender relations. In this context, temporary farm work for temporeros and temporeras in the agribusiness export industry, has become an opportunity for hundreds of thousands of Chileans, who move around the country for a salary, to work in precarious conditions, during certain times of the year - a possibility that has also significantly transformed social relations, local identities and cultures beyond the sphere of work. This socio-anthropological research analyzes the social transformations that specific development strategies have triggered in farm work and in rural areas, thanks to temporary offers of work. It examines the configuration of an invisible world defined among others by precarious, often informal jobs, female labor, social and gender relations, social and work identities, and representations of progress. Therefore, this research aims to contribute to studies that focus on the development and globalization process, arising from global practices and local experiences. Based on ethnographic research in the Limarí Valley – an area of fruit production, especially grapes for export - and using a methodology consisting of participant observations, non-structured interviews and questionnaires with actors related to the current agricultural community (workers, managers, subcontractors, other local representatives, institutional and state services agents and unofficial agents from universities, trade unions and religious organizations) this study examines the dynamics and representations of the invisible world of seasonal agricultural work.
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Tamara Heran. Le Monde Invisible du Travail de l'Agro-industrie d'Éxportation au Chili. Étude de la Vallée du Limarí. Sociologie. École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01114757⟩

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