Étude théorique d’un gaz de fermions froids en interaction : aspects dynamiques et effets de polarisation

Abstract : Technical progress on ultra-cold Fermi gases experiments induced numerous studies for the last few years. Using these experimental setups, it is effectively possible to generate ultra-cold gases with selected properties, in particular through the Feshbach resonances phenomenon. This allows us to set the sign of the scattering length a using an external magnetic field. It is then possible to have an attractive interaction (a < 0) as well as a repulsive one (a > 0). The Feshbach resonance itself is defined for infinite values of a (positive or negative), which corresponds to a strongly interacting regime. Moreover, when a > 0, molecular bound states (bosonic because they are made with two fermionic atoms) can appear. Thus, below a critical temperature, a superfluid phase can emerge and a crossover can be observed (from the BEC to BCS superfluid states). Depending on the position on the phase diagram, frequency and damping of collective modes will be different. This is why the collective modes are good probes of the system phase. A precise extensive knowledge of their characteristics is thus very important. This thesis presents a complete study of some of these collective modes in the normal phase. This work mainly relies on the Boltzmann equation which will be solved in two different ways: firstly, with an improved (higher order) version of the so-called moments method; secondly with a numerical solution that has required to write a numerical code in order to take into account the in-medium effects (mean field potential and in-medium cross section). Particular attention has been paid to numerical simulations in order to reproduce as closely as possible the experimental conditions. Moreover, experimental procedures now allow to create spin unbalanced gases. We have shown in this work a study of these systems using the numerical resolution of the Boltzmann equation. Moreover, we have developed a theoretical approach in order to build the phase diagram of these polarized gases, which is not fully described yet. Finally, we have suggested a method to determine the in-medium effects, with the aim to solve the problem emerging with the usual method used in the balanced case
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Pierre-Alexandre Pantel. Étude théorique d’un gaz de fermions froids en interaction : aspects dynamiques et effets de polarisation. Physique Nucléaire Théorique [nucl-th]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LYO10167⟩. ⟨tel-01094476v2⟩

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