Détermination de sondes oligonucléotidiques pour l'exploration à haut débit de la diversité taxonomique et fonctionnelle d'environnements complexes

Abstract : Microorganisms play a crucial role in all biological processes related to their huge metabolic potentialities. Until recently, the cultivation was a necessary step to appraise the taxonomic and functional diversity of microorganisms within environments. These techniques however allow surveying only a small fraction of microbial populations and tend to be consequently replaced by highthroughput molecular tools. While the evolution of sequencing technologies opened the door to unprecedented opportunities in microbial ecology, massive sequencing of complex environments, with thousands of species, still remains inconceivable. To overcome this limitation, strategies were developed to reduce the sample complexity such as gene capture or DNA microarrays.These high-throughput strategies rely on the selection of sensitive, specific and explorative probes. To design such probes several programs have been developed: PhylGrid 2.0, KASpOD and ProKSpOD. These multipurpose tools were implemented to design probes from the exponentially growing sequence datasets in microbial ecology. Using highly parallel computing architectures and innovative k-mers based strategies allowed overcoming major limitations in this field. The high quality probe sets were used to develop innovative strategies in microbial ecology including two phylogenetic microarrays, a gene capture approach and a taxonomic binning algorithm for metagenomic data. These approaches can be carried out for various applications including better understanding of microbial ecosystems, bioremediation monitoring or identification of pathogens (eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses).
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Nicolas Parisot. Détermination de sondes oligonucléotidiques pour l'exploration à haut débit de la diversité taxonomique et fonctionnelle d'environnements complexes. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22498⟩. ⟨tel-01086970⟩

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