Perturbations de l'homéostasie lymphocytaire T chez le macaque rhésus chinois en phase aiguë d'infection par le SIVmac251

Abstract : As a model to study type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) pathogenesis, rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are under extensive investigation. Two subspecies of rhesus macaques have been defined, based on a different geographic origin. Indian rhesus macaques exhibit a rapid disease progression and acute infection is characterized by a massive CD4 T-cell loss in the intestinal mucosa. This was associated to the translocation of bacterial products through the gut epithelium during the chronic stage. Contrary to the animals of Indian origin, the pathogenesis of Chinese rhesus macaques infected with SIV is similar to HIV-1 infected patients. Viral and immunological settings in periphery are also closer to what is described in infected humans. However, the kinetics of mucosal disruption is poorly documented in this model. As a first step, I confirmed the rapid SIV dissemination in the gastro-intestinal tract of Chinese rhesus macaques. The small intestine, in particular the ileum, undergoes an early and high viral replication. Despite this high viral load, the numbers of CD4+ T cells in the ileum mucosa remains unchanged during the first two weeks following infection in this model. On the other hand, we noticed a substantial augmentation of cytotoxic T-cell numbers and macrophages, suggesting the establishment in situ of a strong immune response. We demonstrated that this augmentation of CD8+ T cells and macrophages together with the maintenance of helper T-cell numbers in the ileum mucosa are most probably related, at least in part, to the recruitment of circulating cells. Indeed, we describe for the first time a significant augmentation of numerous chemokine expressions by this mucosa the first days post-infection. At the same time, we described a transient diminution of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell numbers in the blood. Finally, we detected a significant upregulation of interleukine 7 (IL-7) expression after SIV infection. This increase, specifically observed in the small intestine mucosa, is correlated to chemokine expressions. These results highlight new evidences on IL-7 contribution in the regulation of chemokines expression following SIV infection. All together, our results revealed the preservation of CD4+ T cell population in the small intestine mucosa during the acute phase of SIV infection in Chinese rhesus macaques. Furthermore, the exacerbation of local chemokine expressions let us think that immune cells are relocated to the intestinal mucosa the first days after infection. These migrations could have deleterious effects to the host, bringing new targets for viral replication. On the other side, this localized recruitment of immune cells that are key players in intestinal immunity could restrict the replication of the virus. Consequently, it is of major importance to better define the impact of immune cells trafficking on intestinal mucosa integrity and disease progression. Our findings bring new arguments in favor of Chinese rhesus macaque as a suitable model to study HIV-1 pathogenesis.
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Rosalie Ponte. Perturbations de l'homéostasie lymphocytaire T chez le macaque rhésus chinois en phase aiguë d'infection par le SIVmac251. Immunologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05T030⟩. ⟨tel-01085998⟩

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