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Mécanismes de sécrétion d'ATP et d'exposition de la calréticuline au cours d'une chimiothérapie immunogène

Abstract : Cytotoxic anti-neoplastic agents were considered for a long time to mediate their therapeutic effects via their capacity to directly kill malignant cells. Nevertheless, this high cytotoxicity is non-targeted and will eventually diminish immune cells. During the last years, it has been shown that radiotherapy and some anticancer agents, such as anthracyclines and oxaliplatin, can stimulate actively anti-tumor immune responses. In fact, they can induce an immunogenic type of apoptosis, which we termed immunogenic cell death (ICD). Thereby, dying cells can act as therapeutic vaccine against residual cancer cells that overcame the initial treatment.ICD is characterized by three major hallmarks: a pre-mortem stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which triggers the translocation of the ER chaperone protein called calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface, the secretion of ATP from apoptotic cells, which acts as a signal for the recruitment of dendritic cells and for the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via its receptor P2RX7, and the release of HMGB1 into the extracellular space, allowing it to interact with TLR4 and thus stimulate the antigen-presenting functions of the DCs.The first part of my work focused on the precise molecular mechanisms by which ATP is actively secreted during ICD. Using a large panel of techniques, including chemical compounds screens and monitoring the subcellular localization of ATP, we showed that following treatment of various tumor cells with ICD inducers, ATP is redistributed from lysosomes to autolysosomes and the lysosomal protein LAMP1 is required for active ATP secretion. We also showed that Rho and pannexin 1 (PANX1) are indispensable for efficient ATP release in response to ICD inducers. Surprisingly, we observed an unexpected link between PANX1 and the exposure of LAMP1 at the cell surface. These results will help to understand the mechanisms necessary for ATP secretion during ICD.In the second part of this work we further studied the surface exposure of CRT during ICD. We observed that mitoxantrone (MTX), which belongs to the group of anthracyclines, can induce a peripheral relocalisation of CRT, both in human cells and yeast cells. In addition, we showed that pheromones can act as a physiological inducer of CRT translocation in yeast. Focused siRNA screening combined with transcriptome analyses revealed that human CXCL8 (also called interleukin-8) and its mouse ortholog Cxcl2 play an essential role in the translocation of CRT to the cell surface. Interestingly, MTX-treated human cancer cells displayed an elevated production of CXCL8 in vitro. These results were confirmed in vivo, with MTX treated murine tumors, which also displayed elevated Cxcl2 levels. The MTX-induced CRT exposure was significantly reduced when we performed a knockdown of CXCL8/Cxcl2 receptors. Altogether, these results showed the importance of chemokine signaling circuitries in immunogenic CRT exposure.This work allows for the detailed understanding of the mechanisms of ICD and might thus be useful for further targeted drug development.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 13, 2014 - 5:16:02 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01082578, version 1

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Yidan Wang. Mécanismes de sécrétion d'ATP et d'exposition de la calréticuline au cours d'une chimiothérapie immunogène. Cancer. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA11T045⟩. ⟨tel-01082578⟩

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