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L’aide sociale par le chèque: Genèse et mise en oeuvre des politiques sociales et culturelles « ciblées » des collectivités territoriales

Abstract : Social subsidies by vouchers: beginning and development of the social and cultural targeted policies by French local governments From the 90s in French local governments, social subsidies are often given to individuals by a system of vouchers. The first example of such a public policy has been created by the Regional Council of Rhône-Alpes in 1993 and was called the cultural voucher. At that time, it has been invented because Charles Millon the former president, wanted to build a "liberal cultural policy" by subsiding the public (it was made for the high schools students) instead of the cultural institutions. With this voucher, the students could go to the cinema, buy a book, attend a show or visit a museum. Politician at the time claimed the link with the school voucher which has been theorized by Milton Friedman and tested in a few states. It's also possible to establish a link with the cultural voucher which was invented by the economist Alan Peacock in the 60s. These tools of targeting were supposed to frame the public spending by introducing free choice in the mind of the users. They have been then used by the international financial institutions such as IMF and World Bank in the countries being the object of a recovery plan and freely in countries which wanted to innovate in their national public policies (Brazil, Mexico, the Netherlands, Sweden...) The thesis has shown that the introduction and the use of vouchers has grown up in French local governments. Interviewed politicians and civil servants has used the same arguments as the liberal economists and American searchers specialized into vouchers by denying the fact that it was about liberal devices. Nowadays, vouchers are used by 21 French regions on 22 and half of the French districts used them too, particularly by the social services for aged people or handicapped people to target the social subsidies. In fact, the essential question of this thesis is how local governments which deny the liberal filiation of vouchers have been able to spread them all over the French local public policies. By questioning the different actor, a new argument is appearing during the discussion. In France, vouchers are used as communication tools to increase the visibility of public aid. It's also considered as a tool of administrative simplification. These arguments tend to hide the liberal sense of the voucher and to make this kind of liberal policy more politically acceptable.
Keywords : voucher targeting
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Submitted on : Monday, November 3, 2014 - 3:39:13 PM
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Arnaud Lacheret. L’aide sociale par le chèque: Genèse et mise en oeuvre des politiques sociales et culturelles « ciblées » des collectivités territoriales. Science politique. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01079733⟩

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