Protocoles d'interaction cerveau-machine pour améliorer la performance d'attention visuo-spatiale chez l'homme

Romain Trachel 1
1 ATHENA - Computational Imaging of the Central Nervous System
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée
Abstract : Visuospatial attention is an information selection and processing mechanism whose overt manifestations consist of head or gaze shifts. In anticipation to new information, the focus of attention can also covertly shift to peripheral vision to share attention between two distinct locations: the overt one (center of gaze) and the covert one in periphery. In such a situation, the reaction to a target appearing at the focus of attention is enhanced with respect to targets appearing at unattended locations. This thesis addresses the problem of detecting the location of covert attention by decoding neural activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG) before target onset in 3 experiments on healthy subjects. The first experiment uses visuospatial cues that are non-informative about the target location. However, the neural activity reflects that non-informative cues tend to bring the subjects into a state related to alertness, motor preparation or temporal expectation rather than a spatial shift of attention. According to this result, the second experiment uses an ambiguous precueing condition in which the sujet's attention is shifted to spatial locations which bear a non-systematic relation to the information contained in the cues. With these ambiguous cues, we find that the proportion of targets displayed at unattended locations is equivalent to a non-informative condition, and that reaction speed and accuracy are dramatically impacted.
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Romain Trachel. Protocoles d'interaction cerveau-machine pour améliorer la performance d'attention visuo-spatiale chez l'homme. Autre. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014NICE4038⟩. ⟨tel-01077931⟩

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