Particules matérielles en écoulement turbulent. Transport, dynamique aux temps longs et transfert thermique

Abstract : We are interested in the turbulent transport of particles whose size is bigger than the Kolmogorov length scale. This issue takes place as much in natural flows (such as sediment transport) as in industrial flows (solid solute in mixer for instance). To tackle this problem, we study the dynamics of particle with size close to the integral length scale, whose density can be neutral or slightly different from the one of the fluid, in a turbulent counter-rotating von Kármán flow, through a fast Lagrangian tracking setup. Studying the fast scale motions, we find out that the fluctuations decrease strongly with particle diameter, but we also discover a new phenomena: particles bigger than a certain size do not sample the flow homogeneously. This preferential sampling is link to the von Kármán mean structure, which applies a trapping force on the particles, overcoming their fluctuations as their size becomes bigger than a critical size. A study in the laminar flow regime, where the mean flow is much greater than the fluctuations, showed an strongly increased trapping effect. The particles indeed orbit for very long times around stable attractors of the fluid particles of the laminar flow. Even in turbulent regime, the motion of the particle between these areas occurs at long times intervals, in a decorrelated way of the turbulent motion. We adapted our analysis tools to characterize this dynamics, comparing it to the one of large neutrally-buoyant particles in a von Kármán flow which presents two asymmetric states. We also designed a model that can reproduce these characteristics in both symmetrical and asymmetrical cases. These issues are tightly linked to mass or heat transfer between a particle and the carrier flow. Therefore, we also studied the melting dynamics of large ice balls in fully developed turbulence, analyzing the impact of particles size and sliding velocity on the turbulent heat transfer, through an afocal shadowgraphy setup. We showed in particular that large freely advected ice balls melt in the ultimate regime of heat transfer.
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Nathanaël Machicoane. Particules matérielles en écoulement turbulent. Transport, dynamique aux temps longs et transfert thermique. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Ecole normale supérieure de lyon - ENS LYON, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENSL0926⟩. ⟨tel-01070651⟩

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