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Theses

Paysage & [et] infrastructures de transport : modélisation des impacts des infrastructures sur les réseaux écologiques

Abstract : The development of linear infrastructures leads to the fragmentation and the artificialisation of the landscape across scales. Landscape fragmentation is a spatial process that is accompanied by a progressive decrease of the connectivity between the elements needed to conduct ecological processes. Thus, maintaining a good level of connectivity between natural habitats, compatible with human activities, has become a major issue for the preservation of biodiversity.By mobilizing methods from graph theory and landscape ecology, the thesis seeks to demonstrate the value of landscape graphs to model ecological networks and analyze impacts of transportation infrastructures at regional scale.The modeling approach, demonstrated the influence of roe deer ecological network in locating its collision hotspots related to traffic flow of the DIR est road network in Franche-Comté. Work has also allowed us to propose a methodological framework for (1) locating the potential impact of the eastern branch of the HSR Rhin-Rhône on a species distribution, and (2) estimate the distance of disturbance of this infrastructure. Finally, two approaches are proposed to quantify and prioritize improvements to prevent or mitigate these impacts. The results show the relevance of the ecological networks in the environmental impact assessment of transportation infrastructures.
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Xavier Girardet. Paysage & [et] infrastructures de transport : modélisation des impacts des infrastructures sur les réseaux écologiques. Géographie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BESA1032⟩. ⟨tel-01336531⟩

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