Etude du comportement du tungstène sous irradiation : applications aux réacteurs de fusion

Abstract : Thermonuclear fusion is envisaged as a new energy source practically inexhaustible. The project ITER "International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor" must demonstrate the scientific feasibility and the control of thermonuclear fusion. Tungsten (W) has been chosen to cover the "divertor", a critical component of the ITER reactor. It will be subjected to extreme operating conditions : to the neutron bombardment, to intense fluxes of heat and particles (helium, hydrogen). These conditions will induce defects in the W and will introduce helium and hydrogen which may lead to changes in microstructure and physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to study, at the atomic scale, the evolution of tungsten microstructure under irradiation. In order to simulate the recoil atoms generated by the neutron irradiation, W samples were irradiated with heavy ions and/or implanted with helium ions. The nature of the defects has been studied by using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS). The results show that irradiations with heavy ions lead to the formation of monovacancies and vacancy clusters whose size and concentration increase with the fluence. Irradiations or annealing carried out at a temperature above 450 K lead to agglomeration of vacancy defects essentially by monovacancies migration. For annealing at high temperatures (1773 K), the TEM observations indicate the presence of nanometric cavities (~ 10 nm). The implantations with 60 keV 4He ions induce in the W a distribution of complex defects like nHe-mv, as well as a low concentration of monovacancies v. A majority of complex He-v is formed for the low fluence and the fraction of complex defects (nHe-mv) increases as the flunce increases. The nature and distribution of defects evolve with annealing temperature and depend on the ratio [H]/[v]. The first stage annealing of vacancy defects (~ 450 K) is masked by the presence of helium in the vacancy defects. For a ratio [He]/[v] greater than 1, an agglomeration stage of defects is clearly observed from 1623 K. For conditions of introduction of defects and helium close to those expected in fusion reactors (He/dpa from 0.03-8 appm He/dpa), positron signature after irradiation is similar to that measured in samples damaged in equivalent conditions without introducing helium. For ratio He/dpa from 0.3 to 8 appm He/dpa, the annealing reveal differences in size distribution and concentration of vacancy defects. The presence of helium in the vacancy clusters changes the annihilation characteristics of positron and favors to stabilize the vacancy clusters.
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Moussa Sidibe. Etude du comportement du tungstène sous irradiation : applications aux réacteurs de fusion. Autre. Université d'Orléans, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ORLE2007⟩. ⟨tel-01068634⟩

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