Dispositifs spatiaux et évolution des villes lao, persistence des pratiques et permanence des formes : la place du centre historique et de l'habitat ancien dans la recomposition de la ville contemporaine

Chayphet Sayarath 1
1 IPRAUS - Institut Parisien de Recherche Architecture Urbanistique Société
UMR AUSser - Architecture Urbanisme Société : Savoir Enseignement Recherche
Abstract : Today's regional construction of the South-East Asia, cities are faced with accelerated development, their economic, cultural and human spaces are recomposed and restructured. Their trajectories of development are also diversified. Beginning in the mid 1990s and has intensified since 2000s, the Laotian cities began a new urban period, which question not only the future but also the past: how does Laos live its regional and especially its local integration? In search of its limits and mode of management and in search of the direction for its development, without models and clear references, the new development of Laotian cities is badly handled. It clarifies certain difficulties in building quality of life. It also highlights the separation of the city with regard to its primitive structures consisted by its historic roots: its inhabitants and their practices, its old centers as inherited and referenced space. From 1995 and 2000, spaces or historical centers are modified at the same time the new area appears, ending in a spatial reorganization, causing difficulties in identifying the historic centers with the urban territory. The links between the cities, which develop in progress with their former spaces, worked until their places of social reference, coherence and spatial structuring are weakened. As the city changes, the notions of historic centers, the old housing environments and the mode to live in the city were altered. The city, its space, social, economic, political and symbolic components, as structuring and identity matrix, seem to be denied or neglected today. This report developed in the first part of the thesis, are affixed in the second part the introspective (in the cultural and human foundation of the space which forged establishments lao and their characteristics) and retrospective regards (in the history and the time of the construction of the space) to the space of the Laotian cities. These regards allow revealing periods extending between 1975 and 1990 as something in charge of the break. The ideological redeployment of the new political regime accompanied with new spatial devices intervened for this period would have brought the important transformations in the perception of the city and its history, in the spatial practice, the way of managing and of developing the city. Neglecting the historic centers and their founding theory, we neglect at the same time the educational value of the inherited spaces. Public authorities and inhabitants occupied respectively the spaces, during this period: for some, following an ideological projection in collectivization of the properties, and for others, according to a practice of occupation without act of appropriation. Between the period when cities evolved without moving away from their matrices of foundation and when they have to develop a profound reorganization with difficulties and handicaps, characterizes the current period. 1975s and 1980s seem to constitute a period of transition illustrated by the notion of "absent city" and by the phenomenon of "public squat". The reflection led in this research is to demonstrate that dificulties of actual period are linking with the transition period, that strategy of urban development of today has to be implemented by revisiting the experiments of the period of transition. What had been neglected, such the notion of the city with its components inherited from history, the citizen living in the city, the creation, management and sharing of spaces and territories, should probably be replaced in the concerns of the policies (decision-makers) and of the inhabitants. In this new regional context, in questioning also its own endogenous data, or internalized data all along history, that Laos will establish its models of space and development in an adapted and long-lasting way
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Chayphet Sayarath. Dispositifs spatiaux et évolution des villes lao, persistence des pratiques et permanence des formes : la place du centre historique et de l'habitat ancien dans la recomposition de la ville contemporaine. Architectures Matérielles [cs.AR]. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1042⟩. ⟨tel-01067185⟩

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