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Prise en compte d'objectifs de stabilité pour l'organisation de collectes de déchets

Frédérique Baniel 1
1 LAAS-ROC - Équipe Recherche Opérationnelle, Optimisation Combinatoire et Contraintes
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : The study in this thesis focuses on the multi-purpose logistics of household waste. It was conducted in partnership with a local authority, the Urban Community of Muretain (CAM) near Toulouse which provides us with the issues and the various parameters to be considered for the development of the study. This thesis was conducted in two teams, the team of Automated Production (RAP) Production Engineering Laboratory (LGP) Tarbes and in team Modeling Optimization and Integrated Management Systems Activity (MOGISA) Laboratory of Analysis and Architecture of Systems (LAAS) in Toulouse. There is a thirty year waste treatment consisted of a single landfill. Since a collective consciousness of environmental issues has put the waste in the heart of public concerns. Management that is made of household waste is an environmental, economic issue, and major social citizenship, directly related to consumption and to society more generally. In France, municipalities or local communities, with several municipalities are responsible for collecting and conveying waste to their place of treatment. In the proposed study, we will look at the logistics, specifically the collection and transportation of household and similar waste to their point of discharge (waste collection, transfer center or treatment center directly.) The goal is to optimize the transport of waste while maintaining a good quality of service. The issues highlighted in this issue are the classic issues imposed by any study to improve a public service: classic economic issue (minimizing the costs of collection and transport), a prominent environmental issue (reducing the environmental impact) an issue of quality (better satisfy users) and finally a social issue (meet the working conditions of employees). So we will here focus on the daily operational aspects of management. When it concerns a path planning for multiple vehicles at the same time must each do their circuit delivering a certain amount of product to each customer it is called the vehicle routing problem (Vehicle Routing Problem). This practical problem is often studied to real cases and more complex with the addition of many parameters and constraints, such as time restrictions of passage on parts of the network; or by adding more criteria to optimize the same time, such as cost criteria and representing those representing balancing tours, etc. In this thesis, we studied more precisely two emerging problems due to the particularities of the partner community. The first concerns the actual construction tours over a week. Indeed, on this territory a part of collection points are picked up twice a week and another once. The concern is to keep touring relatively "similar" to avoid proposing to users and collection employees to change their habits too regularly. The second feature of interest is that of the evolution of data within that community. Not only its number of housing is increasing, but its collection rate also increases. Similarly the purpose of this study is to integrate the new data without disturbing the current solution. So we have to do this, propose several comparative studies to support its various problems. These studies cover different methods proposed to support the weekly tour organization and the evolution of data over time. For this, we used heuristics and meta-heuristics taking into account one or more criteria. The proposed study has shown the advantages and disadvantages of using heuristics compared to some multi-objective methods. Heuristic methods are very effective fastest methods, in terms of stability, while the multi-objective methods are inferior longer methods, in terms of stability, but in some cases offer very good solutions in terms of distance and therefore cost.
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Frédérique Baniel. Prise en compte d'objectifs de stabilité pour l'organisation de collectes de déchets. Automatique. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-01067163⟩

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