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Cosmologie observationnelle avec le satellite Planck : étude d'effets systématiques de l'instrument HFI et de l'ionisation de l'univers

Abstract : The Planck satellite was designed to perform the ultimate measurement of the primary fluctuationsof the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and to improve on the existing polarizationconstraints. In this framework, the first part of this thesis focusses on the data processingof Planck’s high frequency instrument. In particular, the statistical properties of the noise havebeen tested. This has allowed us to identify systematic effects in the noise estimator, amongwhich some have been corrected. The selection of the data to be projected on the maps, alongwith its quality validation, are then presented. Comparing this selection to a case where the criteriaare much more severe, we conclude that any residual imperfections in the selected dataare negligible.We also show that the data validated for scientific use meet the requirements ofgaussianity and stationarity : instrumental effects will not influence cosmological conclusions.The second part of this document deals with the scientific interpretation of these data. Theconcordance model is presented along with the main 2013 results released by the Planck collaboration.Finally, the third part is dedicated to two phenomenological studies of the ionizationof the Universe. First, the influence of dark matter annihilation on the CMB spectrum is investigated: we develop a method to measure the impact of uncertainties in the thermodynamicalprocesses at play and conclude that the parameters associated to dark matter annihilation arenot strongly dependent on the underlying hypotheses used to model the energy deposition inthe plasma. Second, the epoch of reionization and its role on the CMB spectrum is presented,along with an analysis of the parametrization of the ionization fraction.We show the reliabilityof different algorithms in the case where the ionization fraction is piecewise-constant, i.e. evenin the presence of strong discontinuities.
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Lilian Sanselme. Cosmologie observationnelle avec le satellite Planck : étude d'effets systématiques de l'instrument HFI et de l'ionisation de l'univers. Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique [astro-ph.CO]. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENY059⟩. ⟨tel-01063405⟩

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