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Evolution de la niche climatique et de la distribution géographique des espèces végétales alpines

Abstract : Species' climatic niches play an important role in the spatial distribution of biodiversity but the way climatic niches evolve remains poorly known. This works aims at determining the general mode of evolution of climatic niches, and more precisely at revealing how some plants have adapted to alpine environments. The study of many groups of plants, fishes, mammals and birds has shown that climatic niches usually evolve by fits and starts but not gradually. Climatic niches indeed remain stable over million years before evoving extremely quickly and stabilizing again in a new range of climates. Simulations have shown that these phases of relative stability need not be caused by stabilizing selection but can also be caused by geographic barriers that impede species from experiencing new climates. The study of the history of plants of the genus Androsace has revealed that rapid niche shifts on the contrary resulted from the appearing of novel traits, like the cushion life form. This work shows that numerous factors contribute to the evolution of climatic niches and emphasizes the necessity to study them together.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01062257
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 9, 2014 - 3:07:34 PM
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Florian Boucher. Evolution de la niche climatique et de la distribution géographique des espèces végétales alpines. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENV035⟩. ⟨tel-01062257⟩

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