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Physiopathologie des anomalies du développement alvéolaire dans le RCIU : approche expérimentale et clinique

Abstract : Insufficient intrauterine growth is with prematurity and congenital malformations, a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. These conditions are interrelated, the preterm infants often suffered of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Recent epidemiological stud-ies showed that IUGR was associated with increased respiratory morbidity as soon as the ne-onatal period, with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the main respira-tory sequelae of prematurity. BPD is characterized by impaired alveolar and vascular devel-opment and is the consequence of multiple insults on an immature lung. The exact pathophysi-ology is still largely unknown. We study in this work the relationship between IUGR and DBP with an experimental and clinical approach. While epidemiological studies are relatively concordant on the relationship between IUGR and BPD, experimental studies showed various results in lung development and molecular process. We wanted to identify, at first, a model of IUGR reproducing impaired alveolar development observed in humans using three previously validated models in rats: a model of per-gestational protein restriction, a model of unilateral ligation uterine artery, an injection pattern of a chemical inhibitor of NO synthase, L NAME. Only antenatal protein restriction can reproduce long-term impaired alveolarization as those observed in BPD. However, in this model, changes in key genes previously identified in pathological alveolar development are not observed before, during or after alveolarization. This result led us to perform a genome-wide analysis which identified several modified path-ways during alveolarization. Among these, the genes involved in the “cardiac contractility”, “cell adhesion molecules”, “immunity”, “molecular adhesion” or the "Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor" pathways. In the clinical part of this study, we evaluated the risk of BPD in extreme preterm infants with IUGR whose mothers had evidence of vascular disease of pregnancy (preeclampsia). This single-center retrospective study of 184 children was used to compare children with IUGR in adjusted for gestational age children. The vascular IUGR increases the risk of DBP by 6. An early marker of progression to BPD is a low platelet count at birth, referring to the role of high levels of circulating anti-angiogenic factors. A study is ongoing to correlate circulating anti-angiogenic factors present in preeclamptic mothers to res-piratory outcome and particularly BDP, in newborn younger than 30 weeks of gestational age at birth. In conclusion, we have shown experimentally that only prenatal protein restriction in rats reproduced impaired alveolarization comparable to those observed in the BPD. New mo-lecular pathways potentially involved in the impaired alveolarization were highlighted. More-over, the role of placental anti-angiogenic factors leading to development of BPD is evaluat-ed.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01060181
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 3, 2014 - 10:05:40 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 1, 2020 - 3:24:06 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 14, 2017 - 4:50:32 PM

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Elodie Zana. Physiopathologie des anomalies du développement alvéolaire dans le RCIU : approche expérimentale et clinique. Biologie moléculaire. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05T020⟩. ⟨tel-01060181⟩

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