Etude des effets liés à l’exposition aux insecticides chez un insecte modèle, Drosophila melanogaster

Abstract : Pesticides have been used extensively and induce harmful effects on organisms and their environment. The aim of my PhD work was to investigate the effects of two insecticides by using Drosophila as a model. The first study concerns the effect of a neonicotinoid, imidacloprid. The results obtained have shown that a chronic exposure at sublethal doses of this insecticide affects reproduction in flies. Moreover, acute exposure at high doses has pointed out a resistance phenomenon in females of a field strain. We have shown that two mechanisms are implicated: (i) low expression of a subunit of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that is the target of imidaclopride and (ii) role of glutathione S-transférases, detoxication enzymes, in imidaclopride metabolism. These results highlight impact of insecticides, in particular imidaclopride, on non target organisms. The aim of the second study was to characterize in Drosophila, effects of an organochlorine, dieldrin, potentially implicated in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease in humans. Dieldrin exposure at low doses promotes neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons and alters structures of particular regions of the brain. Disruption of metabolism is also induced after exposition to dieldrin. In addition, we have shown that epigenetic processes are implicated in neurodegenration induced by dieldrin. This work show advantages of new techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and High Reslution Magic Angle Spinning in this kind of study.
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Fanny Louat. Etude des effets liés à l’exposition aux insecticides chez un insecte modèle, Drosophila melanogaster. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ORLE2062⟩. ⟨tel-01058781⟩

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