Évolution des propriétés physico-chimiques des aérosols désertiques issus de l’outflow africain

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the evolution of the dust physical and chemical properties through a case of long-range transport of Saharan dust over Northern Europe. This episode of May 2008 is considered as the strongest event of Saharan dust transport to Europe observed since these last five years. This spread of dust is investigated by combining observations (ground-based, airborne, satellite) and the meso-scale model Méso-NH.The analysis of the removal processes reveals that the amounts lost by dry and wet deposition represent 7 and 40 % the total dust emitted respectively. The observed aerosol optical thickness ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 at the wavelength of 440 nm, with a maximum value close to 1 is found over the Netherlands. Over that site, the dust layer was mainly located between 2.5 and 5.2 km, moreover dust was also present at 0.5 km. The concentration of dust inside these two layers is estimated to 350 and 450 ��g.m-3 respectively. Nevertheless, the usual optical characteristics of Saharan dust were not observed. In particular, the scattering coefficient measurements revealed a strong spectral dependence observed during the 30th May, close to Cabauw. The analysis of the numerical experiements revealed that this was due to high precipitation scavenging efficiency for the coarse mode. The presence of Saharan dust coincides with an increase of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. Our results suggest that the mixing processes between the Saharan dust and anthropogenic particles have led to an increase of the Saharan dust hygroscopic properties. Thus, this thesis confirms that physical and chemical conditions of the atmosphere govern the life cycle of dust.
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Nelson Bègue. Évolution des propriétés physico-chimiques des aérosols désertiques issus de l’outflow africain. Physique Atmosphérique et Océanique [physics.ao-ph]. Université de la Réunion, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LARE0009⟩. ⟨tel-01139901⟩



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