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Study, optimization and silicon implementation of a smart high-voltage conditioning circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting system

Andrii Dudka 1 
1 CIAN - Circuits Intégrés Numériques et Analogiques
LIP6 - Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6
Abstract : Vibration energy harvesting is a relatively new concept that can be used in powering micro-scale power embedded devices with the energy of vibrations omnipresent in the surrounding. This thesis contributes to a general study of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs) employing electrostatic transducers. A typical electrostatic VEH consists of a capacitive transducer, conditioning electronics and a storage element. This work is focused on investigations of the reported by MIT in 2006 auto-synchronous conditioning circuit, which combines the diode-based charge pump and the inductive flyback energy return driven by the switch. This architecture is very promising since it eliminates precise gate control of transistors employed in synchronous architectures, while a unique switch turns on rarely. This thesis addresses the theoretical analysis of the conditioning circuit. We developed an algorithm that by proper switching of the flyback allows the optimal energy conversion strategy taking into account the losses associated with the switching. By adding the calibration function, the system became adaptive to the fluctuations in the environment. This study was validated by the behavioral modeling. Another contribution consists in realization of the proposed algorithm on the circuit level. The major design difficulties were related to the high-voltage requirement and the low-power design priority. We designed a high-voltage analog controller of the switch using AMS035HV technology. Its power consumption varies between several hundred nanowatts and a few microwatts, depending on numerous factors - parameters of external vibrations, voltage levels of the charge pump, frequency of the flyback switching, frequency of calibration function, etc. We also implemented on silicon, fabricated and tested a high-voltage switch with a novel low power level-shifting driver. By mounting on discrete components the charge pump and flyback circuit and employing the proposed switch, we characterized the wideband high-voltage operation of the MEMS transducer prototype fabricated alongside this thesis in ESIEE Paris. When excited with stochastic vibrations having an acceleration level of 0.8 g rms distributed in the band 110-170 Hz, up to 0.75 µW of net electrical power has been harvested.
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Andrii Dudka. Study, optimization and silicon implementation of a smart high-voltage conditioning circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting system. Other [cs.OH]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066054⟩. ⟨tel-01056404⟩

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