DYNAMIQUES PAYSAGÈRES ET GUERRE DANS LA PROVINCE DE THUA THIÊN HUÊ (VIÊT NAM CENTRAL), 1954-2007 - Entre défoliation, déforestation et reconquêtes végétales

Abstract : The Viêt Nam war put the forest at the heart of military stakes. The controversies over the environmental consequences of herbicide spraying inspire the hypothesis that the impacts of this practice are differential according to landscape units, worsened by the human disturbances prior to and after the war. Coming under biogeography, the geohistorical analysis compares sources, that are often divergent, and favors primary ones to reconstruct, at key dates, the landscapes of a province at the heart of the conflict. The present state of partition into three units - plain, hills and mountains - reveals the link between disturbance and accessibility. Circa 1954, the precolonial and colonial practices had already disturbed ecosystems increasingly from the mountains to the plain. The impacts of a war against the environment were direct and indirect. In the post-war years, they were worsened by the civilian practices, which inhibited spontaneous reforestation and provoked forest impoverishment and deforestation; the pressure increased in the hills and mountains, which were more affected by the war. Since circa 1990, the political decisions have officially put the forest between protection and development but they come up against the necessities of economic development. Managed, accelerated by the plantation of fast-growing species, the reforestation is started in some sylvosystems, that were disturbed or spared by the war. Today, in the three landscape units, the defoliated areas are not identifiable because of healing and, above all, continuation of forest decline. Geofacies of craters and former American military bases remain visible. The combination of disturbances prevents from identifying the strict present impact of the war and puts this one into perspective; more weakened are the plain sylvosystems, which were less hit but suffer a strong secular pressure.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 5, 2014 - 3:53:13 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, March 21, 2019 - 12:00:15 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01053749, version 1

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Amélie Robert. DYNAMIQUES PAYSAGÈRES ET GUERRE DANS LA PROVINCE DE THUA THIÊN HUÊ (VIÊT NAM CENTRAL), 1954-2007 - Entre défoliation, déforestation et reconquêtes végétales. Géographie. Université Paris-Sorbonne - Paris IV, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA040279⟩. ⟨tel-01053749⟩

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