Observational and modelling approaches to study urban climate : application on Pakistan

Abstract : The objective of this work is to study the urban climate, mainly by focusing on urban temperature trends. The specific focus is to understand the reasons of increase in minimum temperature through observational and modelling techniques. For this purpose, the temperatures data from 1950 to 2004 measured on several meteorological stations of Pakistan is studied and analyzed. Daily averaged annual and seasonal minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperature data of 37 meteorological observatories of Pakistan (17 urban, 7 town and 13 rural) from 1950 to 2004 is first homogenized and then analyzed. The results show that after 1980s Tmin and Tmax increase faster than the period before 1980s at urban areas. During 1980–2004, the increase in Tmin at major urban stations is observed higher than the smaller towns and rural stations. To understand, the effect of the size of the city, changing land use and the building height on the evolution of minimum and maximum temperatures in urban areas has been studied by using the FVM (Finite Volume Model) model and the simulations are run for three days starting at 00:00 (GMT) on 19th day of each month and ending at 00:00 (GMT) on 22nd day of each month. For each month, 48 possible combinations of simulation scenarios are run (4*4*3) and in total, 576 simulations (48*12) are run for a year. The main results show that Tmin and Tmax increase when urban fraction u, city size r and building height h increase. But it is noticed that Tmax increases more than the Tmin when u increases, Tmin increases more than the Tmax when r increases and Tmin increases more than the Tmax when h increases. Among all urban factors (urban fraction u, city size r and building’s height h), city size is the major factor that mainly contributes to increase the minimum temperature more than the maximum temperature in urban areas.
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Sajjad Hussain Sajjad. Observational and modelling approaches to study urban climate : application on Pakistan. Earth Sciences. Université de Strasbourg, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013STRAH021⟩. ⟨tel-01044727⟩

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