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Etude de la réactivité de décharges électriques nanoseconde à la pression atmosphérique dans la vapeur d'eau

Abstract : Plasma discharges in water vapor are of great interest for a variety of potential applications, such as biomedical treatment, hydrogen production, or plasma assisted combustion. This thesis proposes a detailed experimental characterization of the thermal and chemical effects of non thermal discharge, particularly Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) discharges at atmospheric pressure in pure water vapor. A reactor has been designed to operate with water vapor preheated at 400-500 K. We investigated the various discharge regimes and the operating conditions for each regime. The selected operating conditions are a flow rate of 300 g/h at 500 K. The discharge has an average energy from 20 to 100 W in the spark regime. Various diagnostics have been developed in order to infer the products of this discharge in terms of intermediate species, electrons, and stable products. The concentration of the reaction products (H2 and O2) and their respective flow rates were measured using gas chromatography. A maximal value of 0.85 g- H2/kWh was obtained. The electron number density has been measured using time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) via Stark-broadened lines (H, H and O). The maximum measured electron density is 2X1018 cm-3 during the pulse, and a slow recombination process was observed. The gas temperature was measured during the 20-ns discharge by OES as well as between two discharges (100 us) by two-color OH-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (OH-PLIF). The maximum temperature elevation is 950 K after the pulse ; the temperature then decays exponentially with a characteristic time of 5 us. Between two successive discharges, the relative density of the OH radical was measured by OH-PLIF. An interesting result is the relatively long-lived nature of OH, with a 1/e decay time of about 50 us. Using a 0D-chemical kinetics model, the absolute OH density at the end of the pulse was estimated to 400 more or less 200 ppm. These results provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms underlying the generation of NRP spark discharges in low temperature pure water vapor.
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Florent Sainct. Etude de la réactivité de décharges électriques nanoseconde à la pression atmosphérique dans la vapeur d'eau. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ECAP0022⟩. ⟨tel-01020267⟩

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