Étude de quelques modèles cinétiques décrivant le phénomène d'évaporation en gravitation

Abstract : The study of the evolution of the galaxies, and more specially of the evaporation phenomenon, was for the first time carried out, by Chandrasekhar in particular, in the 40s. Since then, more sophisticated models have been introduced by physicists. These models are kinetics models; well-known and well-studied by mathematicians. However, the evaporation (the fact that stars leave the galaxy) has never been studied before, to my knowledge. The galaxy is seen as a gaz of stars and the model is formed by a Vlasov-Poisson equation, with the gravitational interaction, coupled with Kernel of collision of Landau. A condition of evaporation is added to this model, saying the stars with a large enough kinetic energy are excluded. As this model is too complicated to be studied, I propose in this thesis several simpler models which constitute first steps toward the study of the general model and which inform us about the difficulties implied. In the first part, I am interested in the space-homogeneous model, for which the Vlasov-Poisson term is replaced by a simple time derivative. I make a precise study of the spherically symmetric case with a Maxwellian potential for which the the Landau term is replaced by a Fokker-Planck typed term, and I show the existence of a unique regular solution and the fact that this solution admits an asymptotical profile. In the general homogeneous case, I show the existence of a unique regular solution as long as the mass has not totally disappeared. Theses theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations obtained with conservative schemes. In the second part, I am interested in the inhomogeneous case and I derive an hydro-dynamical model for a Vlasov-BGK model (a simpler model than Vlasov-Poisson-Landau) with evaporation.
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Pierre Carcaud. Étude de quelques modèles cinétiques décrivant le phénomène d'évaporation en gravitation. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Rennes 1, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014REN1S005⟩. ⟨tel-01018326⟩

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