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Répercussions psychosociales des symptômes dermatologiques induits par les thérapies ciblées anticancéreuses

Abstract : Background. Considered as a significant therapeutic progress in cancer, targeted agents are not without side effects, particularly dermatological ones. Very little information is presently available about their consequences on patients' quality of life, that is why the dermatological team of Gustave Roussy has developed a prospective research. Integrated into this work, our thesis aimed to describe the psychosocial changes occurring with cutaneous toxicities and to explore the implication of treatment representations in the patient's adjustment process.Methods. The study included four phases of evaluation (treatment initiation, one, two and three months after) and used two methods: a quantitative one (questionnaires) and a qualitative one (semi-structured interviews). The inclusion was proposed by oncologists to patients who were about to start a targeted therapy. Statistical analyzes were conducted with SPSS 14.0 software; analyzes interviews combined thematic approach and analytical questioning methods and referred to the Pedinielli's theoretical model.Results. Eighty- two patients gave their consent for biomedical research, 62 of them agreed to participate to the psychological study. The quantitative part was completed by 33 patients (50% men, mean age 56 years) treated for a metastatic cancer; 84% developed at least one of the following symptoms: skin rash, hand-foot syndrome, alopecia or photosensitivity. The observed changes were characterized by a physical discomfort and difficulties in the activities of daily life. No sign of disturbance was noted in emotional domain, body image or social relations. The representation of a drug controlling the disease was significantly associated with a lower impact of skin problems on the quality of life. The qualitative part included 41 patients (medical and sociodemographic characteristics very similar to those of the quantitative sample). For most people, dermatological side effects were "boring", "uncomfortable", sometimes "impressive" or "disturbing" when they were associated with pain, mobility difficulties or sleeping troubles, but remained "manageable, bearable". The very positive treatment representations appeared as a supporting element in patients' adjustment. Psychological distress seemed appear when patients feared being stared by others and failed to engage themselves in the renouncement work which is needed to adjust oneself to the transformations related to cancer and its treatments. In such situation psychological distress was supposed to come from an overflow of the psychic defences by a fear of death; the difficulty to restore mental balance would be explained by the activation of two competitive dynamics, which struggle for the organism and the identity survival.Discussion. These results are consistent with the literature data. The skin toxicities impact on quality of life is mild to moderate for a majority of patients. Contrary to our expectations, there was no evidence of change in the domains of emotions, body image and social interactions. The positive investment of treatment, a reassessment of values, the very good physical state of patients and the influence of optimism in patients state of mind have been cited to explain not only the absence of disturbance, but also the very low levels of anxiety, sadness and fatigue generally reported. The importance of the caregiving provided by health professionals was also highlighted: anticipating difficulties, giving information about side effects and effectively managing problems secure patients.Conclusions. The growing development of targeted therapies implies strengthening prevention and management of dermatological side effects. Moreover, it requires to aware and to train more health professionals to this problem, recalling the singular dimension of each patient which can not being reduced to the medical observable.
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Cécile Charles. Répercussions psychosociales des symptômes dermatologiques induits par les thérapies ciblées anticancéreuses. Psychologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V; Université libre de Bruxelles (1970-..), 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05H102⟩. ⟨tel-01012321⟩

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