Transport dans les nanostructures quantiques

Abstract : This thesis discusses electronic transport in uni-dimensional quantum systems whose properties are studied with an extensive use of the finite-frequency non symmetrised excess noise. The first part focuses on transport through an impurity embedded in a Luttinger liquid coupled to an arbitrary electromagnetic environment. The impurity is treated in two paradigmatic situations : The tunneling and the weak backscattering regime. The out-of-equilibrium situation is dealt with the Keldysh Formalism. We show that the dynamical Coulomb blockade theory, extends to the case of a a tunnel junction between Luttinger liquids. Besides, fluctuations dissipation relations that link noise noise and current remain valid. In the transparent regime, we show that the dynamical Coulomb blockade theory applies to the backscattering current albeit back-action effects of the electronic liquid on the electromagnetic environment that have to be taken into account. Fluctuation-dissipation relations remain valid only for the emission noise. The second part focuses on the effects of a micro-wave modulation on the transport properties of the transport properties of these systems. An effective dynamical Coulomb blockade can be obtained by convolving the statistic of absorption of the environment with the Tien-Gordon statistic. Yet, the fluctuation dissipation relations are not verified in this case. These predictions are compared to the experimental results obtained by a team of the SPEC at the CEA Saclay. Last, we study the transport properties of a tunnel junction coupled to a harmonic oscillator maintained in an excited state. We show that the photons within the cavity lead to two distinct processes: photo-assisted transport that enhance the conductance, and bunching effects that enhance the probability to absorbe a large number of photons. An effective dynamical Coulomb blockade theory can also be derived by convolving the Poisson distribution with Glauber characteristic function leading to exotic statistics. These can be probed by excess noise which can thus be used as a quantum state detector.
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Jean-René Souquet. Transport dans les nanostructures quantiques. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112015⟩. ⟨tel-01010433⟩

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