Développement d'une méthode d'évaluation quantitative des effets des projets d'infrastructures de transport terrestre sur les milieux naturels

Abstract : Land Transport Infrastructure (LTI), are a major cause of biodiversity decline. In France, the environmental assessments of projects did improve in terms of impacts on the natural environment but to a certain extent only. Their content, based on qualitative data, still takes little account of the ecological processes, their spatial and temporal scales. Three complementary methods are elaborated in this thesis in order to help the development of a method of quantitative ecological assessment of the impact of LTI projects. They are defined in three ecological scales: natural habitat estimates, ecosystem sensitivities and spatial organization of eco-complex in the territory. The first one is based on a spatio-temporal model of ecosystem degradation rate. It identifies all the potential impacts of projects of the construction, operation, maintenance stages so to define their major effects. A second method develops a set of indicators based on impacts. The causal chain of these disturbances on the target ecosystem is quantified by the PageRank® algorithm and identifies the most relevant target for the research of status indicators. Some indicators, poorly documented in the international literature, gives rise to field studies on the edge effects of LTI on arthropod and rhopalocera populations and of artificial light traffic on bat populations in forests. The third method replaces the ecosystem into a landscape and proposes an environmental cost for alternative ways. This cost represents the set of the natural environment vulnerabilities.
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Contributor : Fanny Mallard <>
Submitted on : Sunday, June 15, 2014 - 10:47:19 PM
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Fanny Mallard. Développement d'une méthode d'évaluation quantitative des effets des projets d'infrastructures de transport terrestre sur les milieux naturels. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ECN), 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01006355⟩

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