Insulino-résistance et vieillissement cardiovasculaire : un traitement chronique par le resvératrol peut-il les améliorer ?

Abstract : The aging of the population is the result of the improvement of the care of individuals, especially the elderly, leading to the emergence of a new demographic category, the « fourth age » with people more than 75 years old. This polypathological population has many specificities, with among other things, glucose intolerance, a state of malnutrition and impaired cardiovascular function. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in this age group. As mentioned in the 50s by Harman, oxidative stress may play an important role in all of these diseases. Resveratrol, an antioxidant polyphenol known for its properties on cardiovascular events could thus be a molecule of interest in this context. Our objectives in this study were therefore to assess the effects of chronic treatment with resveratrol with or without a nutritional care in the very old mice. These metabolic and cardiovascular effects of resveratrol have been studied. Our results show that a high protein and low carbohydrate diet has different effects depending on age. Despite no effect have been observed on young mice, this diet becomes deleterious in adult and very old mice with an increase of impaired glucose homeostasis associated with a deterioration of the lipid profile. These metabolic dysregulations result in a further deterioration of arterial and cardiac function. In the very old mice, treatment with resveratrol boosts the damage related to this plan by increasing the metabolic and cardiovascular alterations, highlighting, for the first time, potential deleterious effects of resveratrol in aging. However, in elderly malnourished mice in the absence of nutritional care, resveratrol has beneficial effects with improved insulin sensitivity and arterial functions associated with altered expression of TXNIP, protein regulating glucose homeostasis and oxidative balance, making it worth exploring as to explain some of the mechanisms involved in aging and in the effects of resveratrol.
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Stéphanie Baron. Insulino-résistance et vieillissement cardiovasculaire : un traitement chronique par le resvératrol peut-il les améliorer ?. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05T093⟩. ⟨tel-01002731⟩

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