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Contributions à l'analyse de visages en 3D : approche régions, approche holistique et étude de dégradations

Abstract : Historically and socially, the human face is one of the most natural modalities for determining the identity and the emotional state of a person. It has been exploited by computer vision scientists within the automatic facial analysis domain. Still, proposed algorithms classically encounter a number of shortcomings. They must be robust to varied acquisition conditions. Depending on the scenario, they must take into account intra-class variations such as expression, identity (for facial expression recognition), aging, occlusions. Thus, the 3D modality has been suggested as a counterpoint for a number of those issues. In principle, 3D views of an object are insensitive to lightning conditions. They are, theoretically, pose-independant as well. The present thesis work is dedicated to 3D Face Analysis. More precisely, it is focused on non-textured 3D Face Recognition and 3D Facial Expression Recognition. In the first instance, we have studied the benefits of a region-based approach to 3D Face Analysis problems. The general concept is that a face, when performing facial expressions, is deformed locally by the activation of muscles or groups of muscles. We then assumed that it was possible to decompose the face into several regions of interest, assumed to be either mimic or static. We have proposed a specific facial surface parametrization, based upon geodesic distance. It is designed to make region localization as robust as possible regarding expression variations. We have also used a region-based approach for 3D facial expression recognition, which allows us to compensate for errors relative to automatic landmark localization. We also wanted to experiment with a Representation Map system. Here, the main idea is to project 3D surface topology data on the 2D plan. This translation to the 2D domain allows us to benefit from the large amount of related works in the litterature. We first represent the face as a set of maps representing different scales, with the help of a geometric operator inspired by the Mean Curvature measure. For Facial Recognition, we perform a SIFT keypoints extraction. Then, we match extracted keypoints between corresponding maps. As for Facial Expression Recognition, we normalize and describe every map thanks to the Histograms of Oriented Gradients algorithm. We further classify expressions using multi-class SVM. In both cases, a simple fusion step allows us to aggregate the results obtained on every single map. Finally, we have studied the impact of 3D models degradations over the performances of 3D facial analysis algorithms. A 3D facial scan may be an altered representation of its real life model, because of several reasons, which range from the physical caption of the human model to data processing. We propose a methodology that allows us to quantify the impact of every single type of degradation over the performances of 3D face analysis algorithms. The principle is to build a database regarded as free of defaults, then to apply measurable degradations to it. Algorithms are further tested on clean and degraded datasets, which allows us to quantify the performance loss caused by degradations. As an experimental proof of concept, we have tested four different algorithms, as well as their fusion, following the aforementioned protocol. With respect to the various types of contemplated degradations, the diversity of observed behaviours shows the relevance of our approach.
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Pierre Lemaire. Contributions à l'analyse de visages en 3D : approche régions, approche holistique et étude de dégradations. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ECDL0009⟩. ⟨tel-01002114⟩

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