Pratiques sportives, normes et socialisation : représentations sociales de la norme en basket-ball, escalade et paintball

Abstract : Any sport practice is dependent upon sets of rules which simultaneously prescribe and forbid what must or mustn’t be done. These rules are codified, they contribute to the sport institutionalization specific to modern competitive sports. We’ll focus on club-organized practice. This thesis work gives an account of how game codes are passed on, of the social representations of sport’s stakeholders - players, coaches, referees and managers - as well as how its norms – game rules, space, length – are dealt with by the various organizations. Our research is based on a comparative approach between three sports that reflect different levels of institutionalization: basketball, paintball and climbing. This work concurrently builds on the use of observation – i.e. training sessions in clubs, competitions -, semi-structured interviews (n = 52) and the method of pair-wise comparisons. It shows sport rule implementation is perceived differently depending on the level of institutionalization - paintball being the least sportified among the three sports - as much as on the practice characteristics (socio-motor and psycho-motor situations). The passing on of the game’s codes is consubstantial with an actual practice culture whereas social representations can be distinguished by one’s sporting career. Also, the way norms are handled lies on differentiated guidelines depending on the practice’s sportification process. Club basketball playing is performed in a durableformat on a normalized sports ground; this is not the case of paintball for which different game formats are still being explored. As for climbing, its format falls somewhere in-between as it has had to opt in for a specific discipline rather than another with the view of an Olympic status. The particular relevancy of this study lies in the fact that it shows sport socialization can induce the individual’s subjective fulfillment. This socialization operates through the institutional prism of the link the players have with the sport’s normativity.
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Mylène Douet Guérin. Pratiques sportives, normes et socialisation : représentations sociales de la norme en basket-ball, escalade et paintball. Education. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05L006⟩. ⟨tel-01088657⟩

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