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Etude de l'éruption d'avril 2007 du Piton de la Fournaise (île de la Réunion) à partir de données d'interférométrie RADAR et GPS, développement et application de procédures de modélisation

Abstract : The April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) was characterised by the largest lava emission in the past two centuries, and by a 300 m deep caldera collapse at the summit craters (the Dolomieu). Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data show complex displacements associated with this eruption, which are unusual for two reasons : (i) the whole Enclos Fouqué was affected during the eruption, (ii) two deformation patterns persist more than one year after the end of the eruption. The first signal results from subsidence of the summit area, and the second from a sliding of the volcano’s eastern flank towards the East. A method, called displacement tomography, was developed to model these displacements. It is based on discretization of the volcano’s interior into unitary sources, and on a minimisation of two cost functions to find a compact repartition of the volumetric variations of these sources, which best reproduce the observed displacements. On the other hand, the NA-MBEM procedure (a modelling procedure based on a combination of a fully 3D boundary element method and a Monte Carlo inversion procedure), was improved to reduce the necessary computational time to obtain satisfying results. Furthermore, we show that temporal interpolation of the data improves the inversion results. The application of both modelling methods on the April 2007 displacement data, shows that during the post-eruptive period, the subsidence of the central cone is caused by a shallow source, located under the cone. This source is interpreted as a deflating hydrothermal system, whose drainage could have begun during the Dolomieu collapse. The eastern flank displacements could be the consequence of two sources, both shallow and parallel to the topography. The first one is interpreted as a temporary magma chamber, which is emptying during the end of the eruption. The second one is interpreted as a layer on which the eastern flank was sliding. Finally, we propose a preliminary model of the displacements that occurred during the eruption, and a scenario of the successive events causing the displacements recorded between March 30, 2007, and June 2008.
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Aurélien Augier. Etude de l'éruption d'avril 2007 du Piton de la Fournaise (île de la Réunion) à partir de données d'interférométrie RADAR et GPS, développement et application de procédures de modélisation. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22209⟩. ⟨tel-00997945v2⟩

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