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Migration de particules fines dans un milieux poreux : Application au phénomène de colmatage

Abstract : The migration of fine particles in a porous medium is the subject of many studies in various fields. For example, the presence of fine particles in groundwater constitutes pathways of pollutants (e.g. bacteria, viruses, heavy metals) through the soil. Furthermore, the complex processes of adsorption and desorption of the fine particles in the porous medium are the cause of damage to multiple hydraulic systems (e.g. dams, oil wells, filters for water treatment). The fine particles form aggregates and settles around collecting grains affecting the permeability of the porous medium. Thus, various mechanical and / or physico -chemical processes control the clogging of the porous matrix. The objective of this work is to study the effect of heterogeneity of the porous medium (i.e. grain size, porosity) on the phenomena of transport and deposition of colloidal particles in suspension. The purpose of this work is to provide a predictive model of permeability in order to estimate the sustainability of the system. For this purpose, a campaign of experimental tests are conducted on the monitoring of transport and deposition of fine particulate clay in different natural environments sandy. These studies were conducted in laboratory columns for which the hydraulic conditions can be controlled and where the concentration of fines in the entry of the column is imposed. After injection of the fine particles, the monitoring of the porous matrix in space and time is carried out using a gamma - densimetric bench. Changes in permeability characterizing the clogging material is analyzed by means of the measurement of the pressure drop in the column. Experiences in the different columns have helped highlight the importance of grain size and porosity of the medium and the injection rate in the formation of the deposit. Our results at the beginning of the test particle deposition is around collectors on surface sites. Then the connecting bridges are created between the grains collecting. We found that the first portion of the deposit is larger in the case of large-sized grains. To interpret the results of the evolution of permeability, we used the Kozeny - Carman model, where we have introduced the evolution of the repository in estimating the surface area of the medium. This model also allowed us to take into account the heterogeneity of the environment and the evolution of each layer by using parameters such as porosity and tortuosity of the medium. Microscopic observations and measurements of porosity on samples clogged supported schemes and deposit saturation retention sites. This experimental work is accompanied by modeling the dispersion equation convection with a term well simulated by a second order kinetics. It highlights the importance of particles already deposited and the initial porosity of the medium and the flow velocity.
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Ghizlane Benosman. Migration de particules fines dans un milieux poreux : Application au phénomène de colmatage. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ECAP0032⟩. ⟨tel-00997415⟩

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