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Elaboration et caractérisation de composites Alumine/Zircone à vocation orthopédique

Abstract : The aim of this work was to elaborate and characterize zirconia toughened alumina composites with different microstructures, using a simple process. These composites are obtained by colloidal process and are dedicated to orthopedic application. ZTA composites offer both higher strength and toughness than alumina, a lower sensitivity to ageing than zirconia, and also a proven biocompatibility. They open the door to component designs not reachable with other, more brittle materials. Nowadays, these composites are the safest for orthopedic implants application, but can still be improved. The first part of our study is dedicated to a numerical modeling of a large femoral head during sintering. It is so possible to obtain a realistic model of thermal and mechanical strain gradient. However, the modeling should be enhanced by a thorough study of the elastic-viscous-plastic behavior of the composite at high temperature. Then some experiments of sintering with various load or pressure and speed should be practice to determine precisely the sintering related strain. The possibility of machining in the pre-sintered state, with the aim of reducing machining costs and simplify the process of large components, is investigated. The second part is focused on the development of various microstructures with specific mechanical properties and reinforcement behaviors. Such structures were achieved by adjusting the amount of zirconia, controlling the grain growth with dopants to improve or inhibit the alumina grain growth (Si, Ca and Mg), and by adjusting the sintering thermal treatment. The use of calcium associated or not with magnesium seems useless as compared to the predominant influence of the zirconia content. Adjusting zirconia amount led to micro-composites (< 16vol% of zirconia and >1500°C) and nano-composites (25vol% of zirconia and < 1500°C). Only Si/Ca co-doped ZTA composites with small amount of zirconia (2.5vol %) leads to almost homogeneous micro/nano composites with a large proportion of intragranular zirconia particles at high temperature. Around the percolation threshold (16vol% of zirconia) all types of reinforcement mechanisms that could be observed in ZTA composites (referred to literature) can be observed, depending on the thermal treatment and the dopants used. The range of microstructures obtained in this study leads us to investigate other applications for these composites depending of its reinforcement behavior and its mechanical and structural properties.
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Katia Deheuvels Biotteau. Elaboration et caractérisation de composites Alumine/Zircone à vocation orthopédique. Autre. INSA de Lyon, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ISAL0076⟩. ⟨tel-00995100⟩

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