Abstract : This thesis discusses preteens' (aged from 11 to 14 years old) uses of the Internet in all their complexities and in anthropological and ethno-qualitative ways. Firstly, it presents a scientific approach and it's principles by focusing on the Visual Methodologies, especially on the participatory visual methods used during the study In two public schools in Bordeaux. Secondly, it provides the analysis of the results of this study to demonstrate how, through the creation of collages and drawings, and interviews with the technical "drawing/collage-elicitation", preteens were able to build a metaphorical model of their relation with the Internet. This thesis contributes to a better understanding of the social and cultural dynamics between the identity created online and the one developed in the preteens' ordinary lives. We examine how this public, through its digital interactions, behaviours, routines, and games, builds a cultural space on the Internet and how the different forms of activities and expressions influence their world: their relationships, their identities and their lives.