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Etude de l'interaction laser-matière en régime d'impulsions ultra-courtes : application au micro-usinage de matériaux à destination de senseurs

Abstract : Lasers delivering ultrashort pulses are innovative and very attractive tools for cutting piezoelectric PZT ceramics. Thanks to an efficient spatiotemporal confinement of the energy during the interaction, these systems reduce collateral damage and preserve the physical integrity of the material on a micrometric scale. Nevertheless, uncontrolled beam propagation associated with complex interaction mechanisms depending on the irradiated target can involve large disparities on machining quality. In the context of an industrial application, this study describes the main steps of optimization of such a process according to criteria of reproducibility, quality and speed. To this purpose, we first pointed out the influence of Gaussian beam properties and their disturbance to define the energy distribution at focal planes. Thus, the quantification of the interaction with the ablation threshold, the ablation rate, incubation and saturation helped to understand the reaction of the material macroscopically. Methodological issues coming from their calculations have been highlighted while machining shapes and processing times were anticipated. Secondly, the optimization of laser parameters was based on both qualitative and quantitative characterizations. Electronic microscopy was rather used for visual appreciations whereas stoichiometry and residual stress estimations were employed to quantify the quality of side walls. We also took benefit from piezoelectricity to develop an in situ observation method which succeeded in detecting the electrical response to the laser shock wave and mainly contributed to the understanding of visible cracks. We finally propose an optimum set of parameters for cutting PZT ensuring good repeatability of the process while minimizing machining defects such as cracking, surface recast and jagged sides. Tests with spatiotemporal beam shaping were finally presented primarily as perspectives of processing time decrease so as to promote its use for future industrialization
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Yoan Di Maio. Etude de l'interaction laser-matière en régime d'impulsions ultra-courtes : application au micro-usinage de matériaux à destination de senseurs. Autre. Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013STET4004⟩. ⟨tel-00994999⟩

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