Abstract : We propose to study in this thesis, a key issue and relatively little discussed in the French research in educational sciences, it concerns the genesis of pupil learning and their evolution during the tuition. We mobilize a longitudinal data (Panel 1997) and the results of a musical experimentation in kindergarten to answer to these questions: How are structured the first acquisitions of pupils and how is it linked to the school context and socio-economic variables? How the cognitive abilities of students affect their academic performance? Are specific activities can improve academic skills through an increase in cognitive abilities? Implicative analysis conducted on panel data has revealed a hierarchical structure of students' skills and the importance of cognitive skills on academic performance. The review of the literature demonstrates that it is possible to increase the academic performance of students by developing some of these cognitive abilities, and that music is a particularly effective tool in this sense. Therefore, we sought to empirically test the impact of music on cognitive ability and academic performance of students by our experimental research. It relies on a robust methodology which guarantees the validity of results derived from it. The result of difference in differences analyzes, confirmed by item response theory, is inconclusive for the impact of music on the progression of cognitive abilities. However, we have shown and verified via Heckman model that the experimental treatment has an effect on the academic performance of pupils.