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Effet des vitesses de dessiccation de la graine et des basses températures sur la germination du pois protéagineux

Abstract : Earlier sowings allow to extend pea crop cycle and to avoid later water and heat stresses, and thus contribute to control yield variability. The objectives of this work were 1) to study the performances of different pea genotypes during germination in temperature response; 2) to determine the impact of desiccation rate, at high temperature, on seed characteristics, germination and storage ability; 3) to investigate energy metabolism resumption and soluble sugar mobilisation during germination, and to determine the impact of high desiccation rate after seed filling, and low temperature during germination. Spring pea genotypes, Baccara and Térèse, and winter genotype, Champagne, had the same very low base temperature of -1.1°C. From cold until optimum temperature, Champagne genotype had a germination rate faster than the two other genotypes. High desiccation rates had little impactson germination but strongly affected seed storage ability, which was measured after a controlled deterioration. This was related to an increase of conductivity attributed to cellular damages, in particular at membrane level. The high germination rate of Champagne genotype was correlated to a high imbibition rate, allowing a faster respiration. A relationship was found between oxygen consumption and ATP production. Champagne genotype also showed a higher alternative pathway capacity, ATP and soluble sugar use than the spring pea genotypes, Baccara and Térèse. Soluble sugar use in embryonic axes, after RFO mobilisation, was well correlated with germination rate. High desiccation rate induced an increase of respiration which could be connected with the establishment of repair mechanisms. Low temperatures delayed germination process and metabolism resumption by their action on enzymatic systems but when time was expressed in thermal-time, the delay disappeared. Nevertheless, Champagne respiration was less affected by low temperature. The overall results lead to a global scheme that summarizes key mechanisms associated with a high germination rate, and to a model describing the role of adenylate kinase and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the regulation of metabolism with respect to anhydrobiosis.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 12, 2014 - 2:38:00 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 4:08:14 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, August 12, 2014 - 11:56:13 AM

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Marie-Paule Raveneau. Effet des vitesses de dessiccation de la graine et des basses températures sur la germination du pois protéagineux. Biologie végétale. Université d'Angers, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00989810⟩

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