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Analyse comparative des génomes d’espèces majeures pour l’aquaculture par cartographie RH et Identification des répertoires des récepteurs olfactifs (OR) et TAAR des cichlides

Abstract : The construction of genome maps consists in placing tags, called markers, on the chromosomes. The denser in evenly spaced markers is a map, the more it is informative, leading to the development of more future applications. Among the different mapping strategies, those using radiation hybrids (RH) have numerous advantages. Indeed, polymorphic markers such as microsatellites, useful for linkage analyses, as well as gene markers, polymorphic or not and allowing comparative mapping with other genomes and definition of synteny breaks and conservation, can be localized on a RH map. Not only these maps are useful to identify genes of interest but they are also essential tools to study genome evolution. Among numerous vertebrates of interest, we constructed RH maps of fishes and cichlids in particular. Indeed these fishes constitute interesting genetic models from economical and evolution points of view. Having genome maps of several of these fishes would help to identify genes implicated in phenotypical or pathological traits, or even markers linked to stress and reproduction. My thesis work consisted in the construction of a genome map of the sea bass, a tilapia RH panel and its RH map, a sturgeon RH panel as well as an oyster RH panel. The tilapia map was used for the assembly of the sequencing data of the tilapia genome. Thanks to this last work realized with an international consortium we had a privileged access to the sequencing data of five cichlid genomes (O. niloticus, P. nyererei, H. burtoni, N. brichardi and M. zebra). We then participated to the annotation of these genomic sequences. In particular we have identified and characterized the olfactory receptor gene (OR) repertoires and of the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) gene repertoires of these five cichlids. Which are then made of 158, 88, 90, 69, 102 OR genes and 45, 19, 23, 12, 20 TAAR genes respectively.
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Naoual Azzouzi. Analyse comparative des génomes d’espèces majeures pour l’aquaculture par cartographie RH et Identification des répertoires des récepteurs olfactifs (OR) et TAAR des cichlides. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN1S152⟩. ⟨tel-00989008⟩

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