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Theses

La contrattazione collettiva aziendale in Europa

Abstract : The present dissertation work consists of 3 chapters. The first one focuses on the analysis of the role of collective bargaining within Community Law. The purpose is to assess whether it is suitable today to speak about an enhancement of “collective autonomy” within Community Law. If the new provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon, acknowledging the autonomy of social partners, allow to compare the European systems which featuring the principle of “collective autonomy”, their implementation will deny this conclusion. The weakness of collective bargaining has lead the single European systems to face the current economic crisis by adopting national reforms pursuing the objective of “flexicurity” spurred and supported by European Institutions. An alignment between different European systems of industrial relations has been observed as for the shared trend towards a decentralization of corporate contracts at company level, this particularly in the French and Italian systems. The second chapter, after a short description of the French system of relations professionnelles, will further focus on the analysis of the instruments employed by French Legislator to promote collective bargaining at company level. The lois Auroux breached the traditional system of relations professionnelles leading to a true earthquake first in 2004 and then in 2008. The point is the different way of conceiving the traditional hierarchy system of the sources with a change in the criteria ruling it, that are now identified in the principle of “subsidiarity”. The unsatisfactory implementation of the reform lead the French legislator to a new intervention in 2008. The 2008 Law reached the point of making the convention de branche suppletive and abolished the hierarchic principle making the accord d'entreprise the new cornerstone of the system. The law also completely reshaped the Trade Union Law. The reform amended the legitimacy review of collective agreements but also amended the representativeness required for trade unions completely abolishing the principle of assumption of representativeness. The 2008 Law engendering an actual promotion of the settlement of the accords d'entreprise, particularly in matter of employment. The final chapter, after a brief overview of the developments of Italian system of collective bargaining, will focus on the analysis of the instruments employed by the social partners in order to promote company agreements. The most relevant instrument has been identified in the “exit clauses” that, already used in the legal praxis, were first officially acknowledged only by the 2009 reform. The Framework-agreement of 22 January 2009 introduced the possibility of reaching “specific modifying agreements” occurring quite a wide number of conditions and cases, whereas the Interconfederal Agreement of 15 April 2009 introduced stricter criteria and limited its stipulation only to the regional local level. The “Fiat” case, first reached company agreements completely regardless of the new rules, made it urgent the need for a change of the trade union representation. On the matter, the Interconfederal Agreement of 28 June 2011 introduced the criteria of calculation of trade union representativeness on which the general effectiveness of company agreements is depending and which basically lead to the adoption of the majority principle. These criteria were re-asserted under art. 8 of law nr. 148/2011, which simply refers to a generic majority principle thus stretching the results of the agreement far beyond its original expectations. The art. 8 acknowledge the “specific modifying agreements” at the company and regional local levels (now called “proximity bargaining”) in such a great number of cases to cover the whole regulation of working relationships. Derogation is now legitimated even in respect to the law, by a “blank power of attorney” to the decentralised level.
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Federica Minolfi. La contrattazione collettiva aziendale in Europa. Law. Université d'Avignon, 2013. Italian. ⟨NNT : 2013AVIG2034⟩. ⟨tel-00980975⟩

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