Evaluation environnementale des besoins de mobilité des grandes aires urbaines en France - Approche par Analyse de Cycle de Vie

Abstract : Transportation of goods and people is known as a key environmental impact contributor in a city. However, traditional impact assessment methodologies don’t consider environmental issues all over the life cycle. The cause of a trip is also rarely taken into account in an environmental assessment. This thesis aims at proposing a new impact assessment methodology that considers the influence of indirect emissions (using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology) and causes of trips on the environmental footprint. Two main hypotheses are settled at the beginning: the environmental impacts of mobility do not only occur during the use phase (the trip by itself) but all over its life cycle. Also the trip purposes may change the choice of way to travel and consequently affect environmental impacts. The global Functional Unit (FU) is “transport people and good in a French urban area during a year” and is divided in intermediate FU referring to each trip purposes, such as “allow commuter trips in a French urban area during a year”. The methodology was developed, tested and validated through a real case: the agglomeration of Saint-Etienne (France). During this phase, mobility territorial actors were met and real data provided that allows facing methodology to possible field limitations. This application case shows first results. First, it confirms importance to consider impacts all over the life cycle (17% of GHG emissions occur out of the use phase). Second, it shows significant differences of emissions by person.kilometer between trip purposes categories. Then a typology of urban area was proposed based on literature about travel determinants. Principal Component Analysis used on French big urban areas (more than 250 000 inhabitants) identified 5 classes. The methodology was applied to three of them (Bordeaux, Toulon and Valenciennes) using data from a standardized survey on households and mobility in order to compare them. It shows disparities on global results partly due to total annual travel distances. The trip purposes differentiation also shows important differences between urban areas. For each cause trip category and emission reduction potentials were calculated for each urban area by extrapolating differences for a pkm to the total annual distance for the trip. This can provide helpful information to deciders. Finally, the need to provide a multicriteria evaluation that is provided by LCA was committed. However methodological improvement would be necessary to better reflect local and regional impacts in LCA.
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Samuel Le Feon. Evaluation environnementale des besoins de mobilité des grandes aires urbaines en France - Approche par Analyse de Cycle de Vie. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014EMSE0729⟩. ⟨tel-00980187⟩

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