L'image de l'activité scientifique au travers de l'histoire de la dioptrique : élaboration et expérimentation d'une séquence d'enseignement pour la classe de seconde; rapport des enseignants tunisiens à l'enseignement des sciences et à l'innovation

Abstract : Based on the research on curriculum and on the field of research mainly developed in English-speaking countries designated by the acronym NoS (Nature of Science), this work addresses the possibility of introducing innovative proposals based on the history of science in physics courses at the secondary level teaching in Tunisia in order to change the image of scientific activity among students. These conditions relate to the type of innovation to implement in class, to the impact of the implementation on students’ epistemological conceptions, to the relationship of teachers to science teaching and consequently to the generalizability. Part of the theoretical studies was devoted to a review of the literature on scientific literacy, on the nature of science and the history of science in education, the other to the elaboration of a reference framework based on history, philosophy and sociology of science. We consider the scientific knowledge as the result of activities—intellectual and practical—performed by individuals, working collectively, in the socio-cultural context of a given historical period. We outline an overview of the history of the dioptric guided by the epistemological learning objectives that we choose for the innovative pedagogical unit: showing the diversity of issues and approaches followed by physicists. Empirical studies have been conducted in Tunisia. Two units based on historical texts and inquiry-teaching were tested in class one year apart by the same teacher with two groups of students, the first one consisted of 20 students, the second one of 25. They differ in the fact that one is focused only on the acquisition of epistemological knowledge whereas the other also involves the acquisition of scientific knowledge on the law of refraction. Written questionnaires were elaborated in order to examine the evolution of the image of NoS of students and their relationship to the innovative unit. A film and two interviews of the teacher who implemented the units complete them. The transfer of the innovative proposal, carried out in the context of three in service teacher training sessions, affected 50 high school teachers. We proposed them the same work as students have to do. Thirty of them answered the same questionnaires as students. Two other questionnaires were designed in order to examine their relationship to the teaching of physics and to the training session. The results confirm the research hypotheses about the existence of a naive empiricist and realistic vision of science among students and teachers, and about a tendency among teachers to focus on experiences. They are also encouraging about the possibility of changing the image of the nature of science of students by introducing history of science in teaching on the particular features considered in the innovation. We conclude by discussing the contributions and limits of the work done and present some future research directions.
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Mohamed Moncef Slaïmia. L'image de l'activité scientifique au travers de l'histoire de la dioptrique : élaboration et expérimentation d'une séquence d'enseignement pour la classe de seconde; rapport des enseignants tunisiens à l'enseignement des sciences et à l'innovation. Education. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112030⟩. ⟨tel-00978508⟩

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