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Produire pour son territoire. De l'autonomie agricole au projet local agro-énergétique. Illustrations dans l'Ouest français.

Abstract : Local agro-energy projects for agricultural autonomy: What kind of territorial and innovative entrepreneurship can be collectively established? What creates specification and land ownership from common non-food agricultural resources? Questioning the processes of territorialisation from the point of view of resources not involved in human alimentation is a little explored topic in agricultural and rural geography. Movements towards agro-energy are motivated by a global and integrated objective of agricultural, individual and collective autonomy that goes well beyond self-sufficiency: activation and reappropriation of local resources, control over the technical options, creating short cuts through which the price, established locally, guarantees greater exploitation of the territory. The transition to collective action is necessary because of the investment costs and to ensure group learning of the prototypes in the early 2000s. The creation of a local short cut requires the involvement of local and national authorities, and the inclusion of agro-energy in their development strategies through LEADER programmes or rural centres of excellence. The singularisation of the territory by the project is based on a new legal structure. Also, the innovations proposed are both technical and entrepreneurial, through the choice of specific legal multi-stakeholder structuring. Territory cooperatives such as CICS, little developed in the mid-2000s, ensure the inclusion of an overall project with a holistic vision for the benefit of local public goods. The topic focuses on the study of 7 actions conducted in four departments in the West of France (Calvados, Orne, Mayenne and Maine-et-Loire) based on two types of agro-energy and feed self-sufficiency production: bocage wood energy (wood chips) and the manufacture of pure farm vegetable oil, the production of which requires the sharing of agricultural machinery from CUMA (coopérative d'utilisation de matériels agricoles - cooperative for the use of agricultural equipment). The analysis was conducted through surveys of terrain via semi-structured interviews in 2007, and then in 2011-2012, with 28 local stakeholders (agricultural organisations, local and national authorities), and interviews with a high biographical content of 25 farmers who initiated these actions. The aim is to understand the logic of co-partnership structures, the choice of legal structure and the methods of ownership of the territory based on common raw materials. The collective and territorial co-constructions of these multidimensional projects put the territorialisation processes into perspective. Resources, in theory common, are specified by the mobilisation of territorialised social capital and by partnerships and specific legal arrangements. The intention of local presence and the goal of agricultural or land "autonomy" are associated with: local control of costs and choice of production / consumption; collective social entrepreneurship; "non-transferable" environmental services (maintenance of hedges, low-input agricultural practices conserving water and ensuring a degree of traceability). With agriculture, mutual aid becomes completely "rural", including more open and territorialised partnerships, with differences depending on the project, more agriculturally focused on pure vegetable oil than on wood chips. Production, producers and cooperative members are involved in the land and its usage, largely (wood chips, oil cakes). Also, the establishment of local agro-energy short circuits relies on the following connection: reproducibility of the processes; specification of the asset due to the localised multi-partnership implemented through a legal structure strengthening the socio-economic dimension of projects motivated by socio-territorial objectives rather than by immediate profit; non-transferability of externalities; mobilisation of "non transferable" territorialised social capital. Four types of combination defining the territorialisation processes of the projects have been identified. They equate to: local ownership of the resource and "the magnitude" of the action; the appropriation (or not) of the autonomy aspect by the actors according to their representation of socio-territorial functions of agriculture; the situation, whether more or less open, multi-partnership and the number of actors involved; the involvement of project territories (Country, Intermunicipal, GAL LEADER, NRP) and regional projects (PER - Pôles d'excellence - centres of excellence) to develop local short circuits.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 21, 2014 - 9:24:40 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 31, 2020 - 3:22:20 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00976045, version 1

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Geneviève Pierre. Produire pour son territoire. De l'autonomie agricole au projet local agro-énergétique. Illustrations dans l'Ouest français.. Géographie. Université de Caen, 2013. ⟨tel-00976045⟩

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