Impact de la microsporidie Nosema ceranae et d'insecticides neurotoxiques sur la santé de l'abeille domestique (Apis mellifera)

Abstract : Apis mellifera is a pollinator insect playing of major economical and ecological importance. For more than two decades, severe honeybee colony losses have been reported worldwide. The origin of this phenomenon is thought to involve numerous stressors that could interact with each other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact on honeybee health of the association between a biotic stressor, namely the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae, and an abiotic stressor, here low doses of neurotoxic insecticides. Laboratory studies showed that the N. ceranae-insecticide association leads to a higher mortality in honeybees, and more precisely to a synergistic effect. This effect seemed to be independent of the exposure sequence to stressors. Moreover, when applied at the emergence of honeybees, these stressors had a higher impact on individuals’ mortality. The honeybee response to N. ceranae and to insecticides has also been analysed at a transcriptional level. A midgut transcriptome analysis has been performed combining a global approach, using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq), and a quantitative RT-PCR monitoring of the expression of selected genes. The exposure to N. ceranae and to insecticides led to modifications in the expression of genes involved in honeybee defenses (immunity, detoxification) and in trehalose and chitin metabolisms. Following this work, several prospects can be initiated in order to improve our understanding regarding the honeybee response to various stressors, combining laboratory experiments with field studies.
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Julie Aufauvre. Impact de la microsporidie Nosema ceranae et d'insecticides neurotoxiques sur la santé de l'abeille domestique (Apis mellifera). Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CLF22427⟩. ⟨tel-00973858⟩

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