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Optimisation de la récupération d'énergie dans les applications de rectenna

Abstract : Latest advancements in microelectronic technologies and especially with the exponential increase of components and devices integration density have yield novel high technology and polyvalent portable systems. Such polyvalent communication devices need more and more available energy. Nonetheless, research in energy storage technology did not evolve with a similar speed. This constitutes a substantial handicap for the future evolution of portable devices. Wireless energy transfer through large distances such as tens of meters using microwaves is a very promising solution in order to deal with the autonomy problem in portable devices. In addition, since electromagnetic waves are ubiquitous in our environment, harvesting and using this free and available energy is also possible. Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna) is the device that allows to collect and to convert an electromagnetic wave into DC power. Several thesis research projects focusing on studying and optimizing the rectenna was carried-out into the Ampere laboratory. It has been shown that for a low level of the electromagnetic field the voltage provided by the rectenna is ultra-low and thus impractical. Further, as it is the case for the majority of energy harvesting micro-sources, the performances of the rectenna depend highly with the loading conditions. So, the development of an interfacing circuit for the rectenna is a necessary task in order to relieve the RF/DC converter inherent flaws. As it is pointed out into the literature, such power management circuit is in most cases absent due to the ultra-low power levels. In most cases, the rectenna is used as it; which reduces strongly the applications area. Within this research project, an ultra-low power and fully-autonomous power management system dedicated to rectennas was developed and optimized. It allows to guarantee highest performances of the rectenna whatever are the fluctuation of the input power level and the output load conditions. In addition, this power management system allows to provide a conventional voltage level to the load. The first part of the developed system is composed by a resonant DC/DC converter which plays the role of start-up circuit. In this case, no external energy source is required even with low voltage and ultra-low power source conditions. Because of its general poor energetic performances, this resonant converter will be used only during the start-up phase. The second part of the developed system is composed by a Flyback converter operating in its discontinuous conduction mode. Using this mode, the converter realizes static and very effective impedance matching with the rectenna in order to extract the maximum available power whatever are the input and the output conditions. Furthermore, thanks to the optimization procedure, the converter shows excellent efficiency performances even for μW power levels based on a discrete demonstrator. Finally, the converter provides conventional voltage levels allowing to power standard electronics. Experimental tests based on discrete prototypes for the both converters show distinguish results for the start-up voltage, the impedance matching effectiveness and the efficiency as regard to the state of the art. 6
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  • HAL Id : tel-00967525, version 1

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Salah-Eddine Adami. Optimisation de la récupération d'énergie dans les applications de rectenna. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ECDL0051⟩. ⟨tel-00967525⟩

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