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Les rationalités des actions collectives au sein de microsystèmes économiques associatifs : les foires ou les marchés libres au Chili et les marchés agro-écologiques dans l'Etat Fédéral du Paraná, Brésil

Abstract : The aim of this study is to analyze the theoretical, experimental and empirical rationalities underlying collective actions within associative economic microsystems. In particular, in the study of fairs and free markets in Chile and of agro-ecological markets in the Federal State of Paraná, Brazil. Due to the high complexity as it rises from these economic and social phenomena, our starting point has been the systemic analysis. It is about a universe with particular experiences, in which inferences from local level -the experiences- to global level -the theory- are not obvious. Furthermore, these experiences must be understood from the systemic set, which in its turn, cannot be reduced to the mere aggregation of individuals and institutions. Thus, at a research level, it implies the use of a bifocal gaze, with which the whole universe is reconfigured as someone enters into the details of its particularities. The field works were conducted in Valparaíso and Metropolitan Regions of Chile and in regions of Paraná Federal State of Brazil. In addition, a small sample of farmers and organizations in Chile was also considered to test hypothesis on social capital, cooperative behavior and shared resources management. The evidence suggests that sustainable collective actions require of a cooperative context which, at the time, involves processes to build up “confidence relations”. On another hand, information in that world is unavailable, scarce and/or costly. In addition, collective communities -as is the case analyzed in this Thesis- may be working over extended territorial networks. In these cases, the declaration, construction and commitment to the honesty of the other and to the whole become very relevant. Thus the evidence shows that in collective markets, there is always a tension between individualism and necessarily generation of trust and cooperation. Therefore the following hypothesis is stated: the probability of surviving during the time -which can be considered an indicator of success-, was related to neighborhood and the kind of institutional networks. If these networks are in an environment that fosters cooperation, the probability of survival is increased. Institutional economics are used as a theoretical framework for the analysis. More specifically, those influenced by Commons, Veblen and Ostrom. In addition, methodologies identified as those of "second generation" are also used. These methodologies allow the analysis of economic behavior using the tools of game theory. Finally, we propose to incorporate social network analysis as a way to model collective rationality in an institutional context. Then we shall turn over to the territories where “first generation” methodological tools are applied to look further on the concept of cooperation, trust and self-organizing mechanisms from the significance of the acquired collective experiences. Finally, efforts are made to elaborate a methodological proposal that allows enforcing dialogs about institutional dynamics from its depth, as well as about the experimental stage, and to incorporate social network analysis, in order to build up analytical models. In the search of analytical methods for the different rationalities of collective action within associative economic microsystems a reflection is required on the methods of field analysis and on the interactions between fieldworks and results obtained for theoretical reflection in economics.
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Karin Berlien Araos. Les rationalités des actions collectives au sein de microsystèmes économiques associatifs : les foires ou les marchés libres au Chili et les marchés agro-écologiques dans l'Etat Fédéral du Paraná, Brésil. Economies et finances. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENE004⟩. ⟨tel-00831924v2⟩

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