Détection des courts-circuits inter-spires dans les Générateurs Synchrones à Aimants Permanents : Méthodes basées modèles et filtre de Kalman étendu - Application à un canal de génération électrique en aéronautique

Abstract : The establishment of an electrical power supply channel including a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) to replace an hydraulic power channel is one of the current topics of research in the aeronautic field. This choice is motivated by several benefits : weight reduction, improvement of the hydraulic network avaibility and easier maintenance. However, the use of PMG as an electrical generator in an aircraft implies new issues, particularly as regards safety considerations when an internal fault occurs in the PMG. Indeed, as long as the rotor in rotating, the presence of the persistent excitation due to the magnets maintains the internal fault even if the stator is de-energized. This makes the safety procedure of PMG more complex. Therefore, it is necessary to precisely know the behavior of the PMG (healthy or faulty) to ensure the avaibility of this power supply channel in order to avoid triggering PMG safety procedure when an external fault occurs. Thus, this work deals with the on-line detection of inter-turn short-circuits in PMG, these faults have been identified as the most critical for this kind of machine. Given the aeronautic context, it has been decided to work on detection methods based on parameter estimation via a mathematical model of the machine using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Indeed, with an appropriate setting, the EKF provides a fast dynamic detection and can be very robust to variations in the electrical network (speed, unbalanced, ... ) which is an important characteristic to ensure a reliable generation channel. Two types of mathematical model are presented for fault indicator construction using the estimations provided by the EKF. The first one is based on an healthy representation of the PMG where the fault indicator is built from the estimation of PMG electrical parameters (resistance, inductance, electromotive force constant or electrical rotational velocity). The second model uses a faulty PMG formulation to estimate the ratio of short-circuited turns. After the comparison and the experimental validation of the fault indicators behavior on a test bench at reduced power, the establishment of a inter-turn short-circuit indicator within an aircraft electrical system and its interaction with existing protections are studied in the last part of this thesis.
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Brice Aubert. Détection des courts-circuits inter-spires dans les Générateurs Synchrones à Aimants Permanents : Méthodes basées modèles et filtre de Kalman étendu - Application à un canal de génération électrique en aéronautique. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-00967012⟩

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