Études biologiques et comportementales de deux espèces de moustiques (Aedes albopictus et Anopheles arabiensis) vectrices de maladies en vue du développement de la Technique de l’Insecte Stérile (TIS) contre ces vecteurs à l’île de la Réunion

Abstract : Mosquito females are potential vectors of numerous pathogens (viruses, protozoa, helminths), which can cause serious diseases such as malaria and dengue in humans. These two infectious diseases are threatening 50 and 40% of the world population respectively. Malaria is responsible for nearly one million deaths per year, and is considered by many experts as the most important insect-transmitted disease. Antivectorial control methods, intended to limit the vector populations and to stop the disease transmission have to face many challenges such as the development of mosquitoes' and pathogens' resistance to the treatments employed to control them. Although various regions of the world have succeeded in efficiently stopping the transmission of some diseases, most of the tropical regions remain under threat. In addition, the rapid expansion of some vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, increases the risks in previously safe areas of the world. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has allowed the eradication or suppression of various insect pest populations threatening crops, animal, and human health, and could offer a promising control tool against mosquitoes. The classical SIT relies on the mass releases of males sterilized by ionizing radiation;they transfer sterile sperm to wild females, which results in a progressive reduction of the target population.Following the chikungunya outbreak in Reunion Island in 2005 and considering the constant threat of arecrudescence of dengue and malaria, the anti-vectorial services in Reunion Island are deploying important means to control the relevant mosquito populations. However, these measures do not confer a permanent, or long-lasting reduction of vector densities. A feasibility study is ongoing, evaluating the use of the SIT to diminish and control the populations of Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue and chikungunya, and Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of malaria. This PhD work was developed in the context of the SIT Reunion project, with the aim of studying the biology and the behaviour of some strains intended for the sterile male releases. Firstly, this study endeavours to compare colonized and wild strains of An. arabiensis, and to determine the sterilisation procedures of the genetic sexing strain males. The second part of this work studies the effect of irradiation on male Ae. albopictus, and most notably their reproductive strategy, the insemination capacity in laboratory, and finally their sexual competitiveness and longevity against wild males under semi-field conditions.
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Clélia Oliva. Études biologiques et comportementales de deux espèces de moustiques (Aedes albopictus et Anopheles arabiensis) vectrices de maladies en vue du développement de la Technique de l’Insecte Stérile (TIS) contre ces vecteurs à l’île de la Réunion. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LARE0008⟩. ⟨tel-00965525⟩

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