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Etude aéroacoustique de configurations génériques de dispositifs hypersustentateurs : approches analytique et expérimentale

Abstract : Air traffic still grows from decades, with yearly 6 billion passengers nowadays in the world. By 2020, the EC imposes aircraft noise reductions by 10 dB per measuring point with respect to the status in 2000. In this context, VALIANT (VALidation and Improvement of Airframe Noise prediction Tools) is an EC-supported project that aims at testing, validating and improving numerical codes and analytical/theoretical models for the prediction of airframe noise (landing gears + high-lift devices) in simplified configurations in order to generate test cases for research needs. The main objective of the thesis in connection with ECL contribution in the scope of VALIANT project is to generate reliable experimental databases for 2-element systems - slatwing and wing-flap - as well as to analytically model overlapping configurations. It is particulary focussed on the experimental and analytical studies of a non lifting wing-flap system in a parallel flow, in aligned and overlapping arrangements. This is aimed at discussing likely aerodynamic and/or acoustic interactions. The tests have been carried out in an open-jet anechoic wind-tunnel for each arrangement and for several flow speeds (30-100 m/s), with main interest on 50 m/s (M0 ∼ 0, 15). The turbulence rate could be changed by fixing a removable turbulence grid with a large mesh at the outlet cross-section of the duct. Aerodynamic results (hot-wire anemometry, wall-pressure) show a strong interaction when the wing-flap distance is about the wing trailingedge boundary layer thickness. Acoustic coupling can be pointed out in cases of overlap. Source localization tests performed by ONERA/DSNA have permitted to validate far-field acoustic tests since no installation effect source seems to strongly radiate below 10 kHz. A good agreement with numerical simulations has been shown for every test. In order to predict noise analytically for a 2-element system in case of overlap in a uniform flow, the mathematical statement has been defined and a 2D-reduction of the equation system can be justified. Since no exact solution exists, several models from the literature - Howe's and Amiet's theories - have been studied. Comparisons between overlapping half-planes and slotted trailing-edge models proposed by Howe and experimental results show obvious limitations in the predictions. Then, an original model is proposed involving two bodies in close overlap arrangement, with no assumption. It is based on an iterative scattering procedure to take into account the close vicinity of the two bodies, using the exact half-plane Green's function in a uniform flow. Convergence is relatively quick and qualitative predictions in angle/frequency behaviour show a good agreement with experiments. However, the statistics of the vortical flows responsible for the sound must be implemented for better comparisons. Other experiments have been done with a backward-facing step - it represents wing trailing-edge cove - to make cavity flow mechanisms appear, such as what is observed in real HLD. Finally, a series of tests has been performed involving a slat-wing system and an angular correction due to refraction of sound waves in shear-layer for a deflected jet has been proposed.
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Benoît Lemoine. Etude aéroacoustique de configurations génériques de dispositifs hypersustentateurs : approches analytique et expérimentale. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ECDL0003⟩. ⟨tel-00965211⟩

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