Conception organisationnelle : pour des interventions capacitantes.

Abstract : This thesis in ergonomics takes its place in organization studies. New forms of organization, along with the increasing importance of service activities, raise new issues that invite ergonomics to focus on the object of “the organization” and exchange knowledge with management science. An instrumental vision of this object is gradually emerging, making it possible to break away from classical approaches and to focus on the articulation between the organizational structure and mechanisms of appropriation. Ergonomics then emerges as a legitimate contributor to intervene on this object. Its goals and historical contribution to design knowledge both facilitate its participation to transforming organizations. The thesis defended here is that organizations should be designed or redesigned from the point of view of development. The view of development used here is borrowed from work with an economic focus, and relates more specifically to a capability-based approach. This approach focuses on what each individual is truly able to do. This implies a favorable, “enabling” environment that must guide the action of ergonomists. By pursuing this goal, ergonomists develop strategies of intervention that can also bear the premises of an enabling organization – an organization that supports debates, the construction of activity, and the work of organization.Following this approach, our research was carried out during the implementation of a Shared Services Center in a large industrial group. A methodology for research and experimentation was defined based on the possibilities afforded by the context. This methodology includes three stages.The first stage analyzes the existing organization, identifies the issues that are not resolved by the organization, and characterizes the determinants of the contradictions which activity must confront. It highlights the fact that the organizational structure, designed by others, was imposed to its agents. Overall, the opportunities for choice, the scope of action, and the effective possibilities to carry out high-quality work diminish compared with the situation before the change. The second stage focuses on the ways in which operators attempt to redesign the organization in use. We then analyze the ways in which these attempts are discussed, as well as their costs and effects on the organizational structure. The emerging picture is that operators attempt to transform resources into capabilities, i.e. into genuine possibilities for producing work that is of the highest possible quality. To achieve this, the organization of work is altered; the procedures are questioned and circumvented: the “customer” is gradually transformed into a partner of the activity, but in a constrained, set environment. The third stage aims, based on the practices and wishes of the agents, to test a methodology for change in situ: the constructive co-analysis of work practices. This methodology aims to experiment an enabling organization and establish an enabling environment, supporting the deployment of activity and the success of operators. Visits are organized in order to invite each operator to observe the activity of his/her partner. The activity in the “here and now” constitutes an object of dialog, supporting a reflective practice on the joint collective activity and the transformation of rules and practices. Thus, the research-experimentation we have carried out has led to new organizational solutions and to setting the organization in motion.From there, development emerges as a goal and as a means for the action we have led. A diagnostic analysis allows us to identify what is allowing and hindering this development. The ergonomic action is then constructed so as to support this development throughout the course of and following this action. The thesis therefore takes its place within the project of constructive ergonomics, and the results obtained are discussed in the light of this project.
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Justine Arnoud. Conception organisationnelle : pour des interventions capacitantes.. Sociologie. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CNAM0891⟩. ⟨tel-00962450⟩

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