Contribution à la commande d'une alimentation multi-bobines pour chauffage par induction industriel

Abstract : In the context of reducing carbon dioxide emissions in industrial systems and improving their energy efficiency, induction heaters meet these criteria. The method consists in immersing an electrically conductive body in a variable magnetic field, inducing currents within the piece which then begins to heat by Joule effect. This technology has the advantage of reaching high temperatures accurately and quickly, without contact with the power source. Today the control of such works with mechanical structures. But many studies have shown that the combination of several coils supplied by electronic power systems provides flexibility in controlling temperature profiles and flexibility towards the treated parts. This paper presents two systems of induction heating. The first is a prototype made by EDF considering three inductors supplied by three resonant inverters. We will focus more specifically later on this prototype. The second one, in progress, involves six inductors for scrolling heating. Their characteristics, their power supplies and their functions are discussed and then set up two models of electric phenomena, one form of transfer functions and one form in the state space. The final objective is the development of a self-adaptive power able to control real-time power profile injected into parts of heating to achieve a temperature profile required with minimum energy consumption. The study goes on with a list of existing solutions in terms of open-loop control and closed-loop control for single inductor system, as well as few rarer works for multi-inductors heaters. In addition, studies have shown that control of the surface temperature of the piece to be heated passes by the control of currents in the inductors, in magnitude but also in phase. That is why we propose control laws for controlling inductor currents. An optimization routine provides the magnitudes and phases of the currents in the three inductors to obtain the temperature profile closer to a reference profile. We modified it to take into account energy optimized solutions by integrating the losses in the switches and inductors. Two original control laws are proposed. The first one studies a robust control in the state space by placing eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The second one involves resonant markers that give the system loop gain module infinitely large at the resonant frequency so that they erase the effects of disturbances acting at the same frequency. The methods of synthesis of these markers are sampled with a very low sampling frequency / resonant frequency ratio; performance are detailed and analyzed for the prototype with three inductors. So as to test and validate easily some of the studied laws, an analog simulator was designed, a kind of an emulator, which reproduces the behaviour of the currents in the coils and the voltages at their terminals. It is based on the transfer function model and therefore does not include inverters. Through a dSPACE card integrating a DSP, we have implemented and validated the two robust control laws on the analog simulator. Thereafter, in order to be closer to the real system, we have established a close control which turns the three control signals toward the duty cycles of the twelve switches of the converters supplying the inductors. This step was validated by experimental tests carried out in parallel with our studies.
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Julie Egalon. Contribution à la commande d'une alimentation multi-bobines pour chauffage par induction industriel. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00962425⟩

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