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Apport de la simulation dans l'évaluation des aptitudes à la conduite : l'exemple des personnes cérébrolésées

Abstract : The question of the driving skills assessment is an important issue, both in terms of security for all road users and in terms of life quality for people whose skills are decreasing and have their autonomy threatened, as brain-injured people. Usually, this assessment is performed by a neuropsychological tests battery and an on-road test. Nevertheless, these toolspresent many limitations. To overcome these limitations, more and more practitioners and researchers are looking around simulation tools. However, simulators are not welcomed unanimously because it is not a real-life situation. The purpose of this study is to show the contribution of the simulator in the assessment of the driving skills. We are particularly interested insome processes which may be impaired and may have a great issue in driving (selective attention, shared attention, anticipation, etc.). In that way, we created a complete assessment protocol of driving, consisting in a neuropsychological test battery, an on-road driving test, and a simulator driving test. This protocol was proposed to people suffering of brain damages, known in the literature to present deficits in the processes which interested us. We wanted on one hand to show that the driving simulator is also discriminating as the two other evaluations to estimate the driving skills, by confronting the results to the various evaluations. On the other hand, we wished to put forward the contribution of the simulator for the study of the impaired mechanisms by showing their implication in driving in populations presenting cognitive deficits as the brain-injured people.The results confirm that the simulator allow us to assess the driving skills, as well as neuropsychological tests and on-road evaluation. On one hand, during the driving test on simulator, the brain-injured participants were discriminated from the control one. On the other hand, the results were coherent between the various assessments: The participants who were mainly noted impaired in the neuropsychological tests or in the on-road driving test were also noted impaired on the simulator. Besides, the simulator gives another perspective on the deficits in driving by bringing in particular additional information susceptible to explain the nature of the deficits observed on road (eye-tracker, response time measures). The simulator so allows to study the main processes involved in driving, in an ecological situation. Thus, the simulator constitutes a relevant tool for assessing cognitive impairments and their repercussions on the driving activity.Moreover, it provides a new perspective on driving skills. It also help to study the main processes involved in driving, in ecological conditions. In particular, we could highlight some cognitive deficits in brain-injured people. The simulator is therefore a relevant tool
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Céline Prévost. Apport de la simulation dans l'évaluation des aptitudes à la conduite : l'exemple des personnes cérébrolésées. Psychologie. Université Rennes 2, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN20063⟩. ⟨tel-00962172⟩

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